Introduction: Culture is a way of life. It is a never ending process. It's called as an overflowing process. Like the culture of other Community, tribal people have also their own unique culture which is totally different from the non-tribal culture. Tribal culture has various dimensions. These are as follows:
Dimensions of Tribal Culture:
1. Social dimension:
Social dimension means the social life of the Tribals. Man is a social animal. As living within the Society they have so many aspects related to their life.These are:-
a. Family life
b. Youth dormitory
c. Marriage alliance
d. Art & Craft Literature
a. Family life
There have four types of Family in a Tribal culture As-
Simple family: Simple family is called as the nucleus family. These types of family believes in Monogamy that means one husband-one wife principle.
Joint family: Some types of tribal people practices Poligamous. That means one husband-more wife or one wife more husband. We found that types of practice in Naga, Santal, Ho etc.
Patriarchal family: In a patriarchal family Father is the house holder. Mainly in the Patriarchal family father dominate the other family members.
Matriarchal family: It's mainly mother dominated family where mother is the head of the house hold.
Youth dormitory or the Bachelor Hall of the Tribals called as "Gotul". Bhuyans called it as DhngraBassa. It's the centre of music, dance, learning. It's a social & cultural Institution.
Surprising aspect of Tribal culture is Gotul where the senior girls teach the Junior boys about Sex relation. The young boy & girls are follow to stay & get training from that Institution. It's a romantic & neurotic. It's either monosexual or bi-sexual in nature.
c. Marriage alliance:
Marriage is a Social Institution of the Tribals. They practice so many types of maarriage as
Monogamy is a marriage where one man can marry only one woman. Polygamy is a type of marriage where one husband or wife can marry more than one. They also practice other types of marriages as
Marriage by capture
Marriage by exchange
marriage by purchase
Marriage by mutual choice
Marriage by probation
Marriage by Instrusion
They have also Divorce system. Its common among the Tribals because marriage is mainly between a young boy with a senior girl.
Life style of Tribals:Every man have some needs. We can classify our needs in 3 categories because of living as
Comfort & Luxury are only for the rich & non tribals. But for the tribals comfort & luxury are seems as dream. They have only necessities.
d. Art & Craft Literature:
Generally Tribals are practice four types of Arts as plastic art, Graphic, art of dancing & oral Literature.They are expert in made the Image of God, heads of Elephants,Tigers made up clay, wood and stones.They paint their walls of their honourable dead persons, ancestral spirit, birds, trees and animals.They made hair pins, ornaments made up Bamboo and stone, coper, straw & graphs. Tribal art is very simple and easy to understand.They perform various types of Dance, Songs and Music. They use the musical Instruments as Droms, Pipe, Flute, Parta and Mrudanga. They practice nonsense rhymes, epics, marriage and hunting songs.
Language: Mainly the Tribals are use two types of Language as Ostrich and Dravidian.
2. Political dimension:
The Tribals formulate their own political organization. They have simple political organization and customary laws.
Simple political organization:Tribals are formulate their own political organization which is very simple in nature. A village leader commands and promote that organization and give punishment or award to the villagers. All give respect to the aged and elder persons of the village.
Customary laws: Generally the Tribals don't obey the constitutionary laws, rules and regulation prescribed by our constitution. They believe in their own customary laws. They govern by their own customs and traditions formulated by their community. They always challenge our system of jurisprudence as a result they suffer a lot.
3. Religious dimension:
Tribals have their own religion dominated by Sarsori, legend and magical power. Tribal religion can found in two forms as 1.Animism 2.Shamanism
Animism: The Tribal people believes that all the natural calamities, diseases and human sufferings are due to the influence of ghostly spirit and super natural powers. Every man is surrounded by that spirits and ancestral powers.
Shamanism: The tribals have the blind believe that all diseases, calamities, deaths and epidemics are caused by the ancestral spirits who live in mountain, river and water falls.
4. Economic dimensions:
Tribal people have simple economic habits. They are the producers and consumers. They earn income bypersuing simple economic activities. Labour of the family has been distributed between the members of the family. Mainly they are engaged with farming, hunting, ethnicallytraders by cost, collectors of forest products and art and crafts.