Tuesday, 22 April 2014

Ten Famous Social Reformers who fight against Social Evils

A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.

Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in utopian, socialist or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change.

1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was popularly known as the 'Father of Indian Renaissance ' was born on 22nd May 1772 in a Brahmin family in Bengal.He founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1815 and the Brahmo Samaj on 20th August 1828. Through these Institutions he fought against Orthodox Hindus and the fanatic Christian Missionaries.

He was against of Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Caste system and Untouchability. He was the great supporter of Inter-caste marriage, women education, Widow remarriages etc. Ram Mohan started publishing Newspapers and Magazines for which he was called the 'Father of Indian Journalism'.

2. Mahatma Gandhi
According to Gandhi " I would make the spinning-wheel, the foundation on which build a sound village life". Gandhian way of education put emphasis on the development of body, mind, heart & soul. His scheme of education he called “Nai Talim” a beautiful blend of craft, art, health & education in one & covers the whole education of the individual till death.

His education is more for girls than the boys. Gandhi ji was the first who Break the bridge between touchable & untouchable. He was the devotee of non-violence.

3. Gopabandhu Dash
Gopabandhu Dash (1877–1928) known as Utkal Mani(Gems of Odisha) was a defining social worker who excelled in the field of politics as well as literature. Gopabandhu was a legend in the Indian culture. He served his people even at the cost of his family.

During his study period, he started Kartavya Bodhini Samiti (Duty Awakening Society) to encourage his friends to do their duty as citizens and take on social, economic and political problems. He was leading a team to aid flood victims, when he heard of his son's serious illness but remained to serve the locals rather than return home to his son. he became the founder president of Congress in Odisha.

4. Swami Vivekananda 
Swami Vivekananda was another important Social Reformer who brought spiritual reawakening among the Indians in the 19th Century, popularly known as the ‘Intellectual Monk of India’ He was born in Calcutta on 12th, January, 1863. He began his life of wondering all over the country with his message of ‘Awakened India’ or ‘Prabhuda Bharat’.

He set-up ‘Ramakrishna Mission’ on 1st May, 1897. According to him, ‘Man is the maker of his own Destiny. The whole world has been made by the energy of man, by the power of faith’.

5. Swami Dayanada Saraswati
Swami Dayanada born in 1824 in a small town of Gujarat. Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of the 'Arya Samaj' was one of the maker of Modern India. His Arya Samaj gave emphasis on the liberation of the Hindu Society. He called people ‘Go back to the Veda’ created consciousness among the people.

He strongly opposed Idol worship, ritualism, practice of animal sacrifice, the idea of Heaven etc. This movement also challenged the Christian Missionaries who tried to convert the uneducated, poor and depressed classes of the Hindus.

6. Annie Besant
Annie Besant was of Irish origin and made India her second home. She fought for the rights of Indian and was the first woman president of Indian National Congress. In 1893, she left for India having been influenced by the Indian culture and civilization. She was famous as a social worker, educationalist, journalist, prominent Theosophist, social reformer, political leader, women's rights activist, writer and orator. She fought for the Human Rights of Indian women.

7. Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is viewed as messiah of dalits and downtrodden in India. He was the chairman of the drafting committee in 1947. Bhimrao Ambedkar experienced caste discrimination right from the childhood.he was the first who reduce the bridge between tribal & non-tribal.

8. Medha Patkar
Medha Patkar was born in Mumbai. On 28 March 2006, Patkar started a hunger-strike to protest against the decision of the authorities to raise the height of the Narmada Dam. She ended her 20-day fast on 17 April 2006, after the Supreme Court of India refused the Narmada Bachao Andolan's appeal to stop the construction of the dam.

She was held by the police at Singur on 2 December 2006 after protesting against the acquisition of farmland. She is a great social Reformer & social Activist.

9. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade
Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was a distinguished judge, writer cum social reformer of India during the pre-independence era. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was a judge, politician, writer cum reformer of India. Politically, Ranade established the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and was also among those who played a phenomenal role in setting up the Indian National Congress party. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was also an active reformer.

He set up the Social Conference movement, which worked against infant marriages, widows remarriage, spending heavily in marriages and other social functions. Ranade advocated for widow remarriage and female education.

10.Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was a grat poet and novelist. In his famous book "Kamala Kanter Daffer" pointed out the social evils and blind beliefs prevalent in Indian Soiety, which were pertaining to injustice to the poor and the downtrodden. He advocated remwedial measures for the eradication of all the evils.He wanrs to maintain equality between the rich and the poor. The famous song'Bande Mataram" was his creation.

Social Learning Process in Psychology

Learning is relatively permanent change on behaviour that results due to experience or reinforced practice.

It also refers to concerted activity that increases the capacity and willingness of individuals, groups, organizations and communities to acquire and productively apply new knowledge and skills, to grow, develop and mature successfully. Such learning empowers individuals and organizations to make wise choices, solve problems.

Nature & characteristics of LearningLearning through observation & experience
Learning involves changes
Learning develop ones personality

Learning through observation & experienceWhen a child grows up she/he can observe, learn & get experience from her/his parents, teacher, peers, television & Institutions. She/he learn morality, truth, behavior from her/his surrounding.

Learning involves changesLearning arises with ones growth & maturation. Learning is a continuous process. It’s continue throughout our life from birth to death.

Learning develop ones personalityThrough learning a person became more intelligent & develop a good personality.

Theories of LearningTrial & Error learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Social Learning

Trial & Error LearningWhen a person make error , get trial & learn many things from that error. This is the foundation stage of learning.

Classical Conditioning:In this stage, a person react towards an artificial stimulus, in the same time her/his mind respondingtowards that natural stimulus. For example create saliva when think about a favourite dish as meat or milk.

Operant ConditioningWork something with an expectation to achieve goal.

Social LearningSocial Learning means what a person learn from the society. The social learning centre may be a family, school, peer, institution or ones surrounding.

Methods of Social Learning
Observation:Observe others and follow what they are doing.
Imitation:Follow others philosophy & idea & carry out that in her/his practical life.
Modeling:Copy others attitude, facial expression, way of talking, behaviour

Process of Social Learning:Attention process
Retention process
Motor reproduction process
Reinforcement process
Attention processPeople only observe & learn from a model when they recognize & play attention to its features.

Retention processRetention process means how an individual quire knowledge & remember model’s action when she/he is not available or present.

Motor reproduction processLearn something by observation & convert that things by performing activities.

Reinforcement processIf the model's behaviour is positive, an individual will motivated, give more attention, learn better, utilise those things in her/his practical life & perform more.

Women Trafficking in India

Women and children were becoming vulnerable to trafficking as they were unable to survive with dignity because of lack of livelihood options.

Trafficking has been an area of concern since the early 20th century but it especially attracted attention during the 1980s. More recently, there has been a widening of its focus. However, this was not accompanied by an independent and sustained mass movement, against trafficking in the country.

Impact of TraffickingIn the absence of awareness of human rights, the economically and socially deprived people at the grassroots have become easy prey to the trafficking trade. Migrating populations have become most vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers. It's mainly the women, children and poor people from rural area who are the victims of trafficking. Likewise the further impact spoil ones life & polluted the society.

Impact on IndividualTrafficked persons are reportedly traumatized by their experiences. Depression and suicidal thoughts are commonly reported. The mental and emotional state of the survivors may include malevolence, helplessness and withdrawal, disassociation, self-blame and identification with the aggressor, whereby the victims convince themselves that their experiences had to happen instead of viewing them as traumatic.

Some of the psychiatric disorders among survivors of trafficking are listed as post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, dissociative disorders, psychotic disorders and eating. Girls are made to bear the responsibility of upholding the family honour through their sexual purity/chastity. If they are trafficked into CSE (commercial sexual exploitation), they face additional stress because of the prevalent morality.

Imact on SocietyThe crime of trafficking involves the violation of a whole gamut of laws and human rights. It becomes a threat to society because traffickers operate across borders with impunity, with the growing involvement of organized criminals and by generally undermining the rule of law. Trafficking ‘threatens the very fabric of society’ because it involves not only criminals but also law enforcers.

Characteristics of traffickers
Traffickers are usually young men and middle-aged women who are significantly older than the young women/children they recruit. They are natives and agents who travel back and forth from home countries/regions to receiving regions and generally have links with the villages to which the victims belong. Procurers are reportedly substance abusers or gamblers. Many of the traffickers are older women, who are either former prostitutes or are themselves in forced prostitution, trying to escape abuse and bondage by providing a substitute. Often, these agents speak several languages. They may have multiple roles.

Trafficking Rate in IndiaThe population of women and children in sex work in India is stated to be between 2 million. Of these, 30 per cent are 20 years of age. Nearly 15 per cent began sex work when they were below 15, and 25 per cent entered between 15 and 18 years. A news item published in Statesman states that roughly 2 million children are abused and forced into prostitution every year in India. A rough estimate prepared by an NGOcalled End Children’s Prostitution in Asian Tourism reveals that there are around 2 million prostitutes in India, 20 per cent among them are minors.

A study conducted in 2001 estimates that any one time, 30,000 girls are being transported from one part of the country to another. Mainly it's in the District of BalesoreKalahandi & Nabarangpur in Odisha where thousands of poor people, women & children are trafficking which are not come infront of the Government calculation.

Government InitiativesIn the SAARC region, the police forces of the respective countries meant to be are ‘the most important institutions in the struggle to eradicate trafficking’ (United Nations 2001). In reality though, police involvement in trafficking is indicated in all the reports and corruption within the force is said to be ‘endemic’.

The Indian Constitution prohibits all forms of trafficking under Article 23. The Suppression of the Immoral Traffic Act, 1956 (amended to the Immoral Traffic Prevention Act) was in response to the ratification of the International Convention on Suppression of Immoral Traffic and Exploitation of Prostitution of Others in 1950 by India.

Schizophrenia 'a mental illness' killed thousands people every year

Schizophrenia is a group of mental illness and not one single disease common mental disorder is a group of conditions not fulfilling the criteria for serious mental illness comprising depression, panic, sumatization and commonly mixed syndrome with symptoms of each. Bleuler in 1911 introduced the term Schizophrenia to identify the same illness.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which accounts for the maximum suffering for those affected and their families.

Symptoms1. Breakdown of perceptual filtering
2. Disorganisation of thought process
3. Emotion distortion and feeling of panic
4. Delusions and hallucinations
5. With drawl from reality

Types of treatment1. The ultimate goal of treatment of people with Schizophrenia is the productive reintegration into the main stream of society, it can be provided at the community level through medication through relief symptoms and prevent relapse.

2. Through education and psycho-social intervention it's possible to assist the patient as well as the families to cope with mental illness art

3. Through rehabilitation and assist the to cope up with community at regain occupational and functioning

3. The incidence of Schizophrenia is due to social factors, which family is appears to be a key elements

In India there are Five Millions of people with Schizophrenia with varying degrees of impact on millions of people.

Methods of Social Work

Social work as a profession is a product of this century. Although its roots are well established in history from the time when people 1st began to take responsibility for their neighbors through activities which were called charity, poor relief, philanthropy and social reform .
Social work is to fight against Five Evils as:
  1. Physical want
  2. Disease
  3. Ignorance
  4. Squalor
  5. Idleness

  • To remove social injustice
  • To relieve social injustice
  • To reduce redress
  • To prevent suffering
  • To assist the weaker sections
  • To rehabilitate the distress class people
Methods of Social workAll social work activities are classified into six major categories.
1. Social case work
2. Social group work
3. Community organization
4. Social action
5. Social welfare research
6. Social welfare administration

1. Social case workSocial case work is a method which helps by counseling the individual client to effect better social relationships & a social adjustment that makes it possible him to lead a satisfying & useful life. Gordon Hamilton points out that, “The objective of case work is to administer practical services & offer counseling in such a way as to arouse & conserve psychological energies of the client activity to involve him in the use of the service towards the solution of her/his dilemma.”

2. Social group workSocial group work is an activity which helps to participate in the activities of a group for their intellectual, emotional & physical growth and for the attainment of desirable goals of the groups. Group work as such as a method by which the group worker enables various types of groups to function in such a manner that both group interaction & programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual & the programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual & the achievement of desirable social goals.

3. Community organization
Community organization is the process of planning & developing social services in order to meet the health & welfare needs of a community or larger unit.Mildred Barry says,” Community organization in social work is the process of creating & maintaining a progressively more effective adjustment between community resources & commuity welfare needs.”

4. Social actionIt s an organized group process solving general social problems & furthering social welfare objectives by legislative, social, health or economic progress. The term social action refers to organized & legally permitted activities designed to mobiles public opinion, legislation & public administration in favour of objectives believed to be socially desirable.
5. Social welfare research
Social welfare research systematic critically investigation of questions in the social welfare field with the purpose of yielding answares to problems of social work & of extending generally social work concept. The methods appliesd in social work research have been to a largwe extent derived grom those used in sociology & social psychology as well as in history and Anthropology.

6. Social welfare administrationSocial welfare administration process is to organize & to direct a social agency. The administrative aspects of social work have to do with the organization & management of social agencies public & private, including in those terms general administrative relationships among ubnits of the same organization, personal problems, questions of finance & so on.

Goal & Functions of Social Group Work

  •  Social group work is a orderly, systematic plan, way of working with people in groups. Social group work is not an activity but a way of conducting many different activities. The members are helped to learn new ideas, develop skills, attitude changes & responsibilities through participation in a social process.
    In group work group itself has utilized by the individual with the help of the worker as a primary means of personality growth, change & development of individual.
Goal (Purpose) of Group work :
  • To teach the individual to live & work together and participate in the group activities for their intellectual emotion& physical growth
  • To live a good life within the group and family. The individual is also taught to work together with other people & participate in different activities.
  • To develop individual personality& behavior by using different group work process
  • To prepare the individual to learn how to safe responsibility in a democracy style of working.
  • To give opportunity to them who have potentiality, worth and dignity of leadership
  • To make best use of leisure time
  • To learn division of labour & specialization of role just to indicate to play individual role in the group
  • To provide suitable task to the individual according to her/his skill, knowledge and interest
  • To widen ones horizon
  • To prepare people for social change
  • To apply group therapy in need of physical, mental and emotional adjustment
Functions of group work:
  • Group work mainly see the situation & the needs of all the individuals & try to solve the problems of the individuals. For every individual the group is the main source of strength & renders everybody helping hand.
  • A group fulfill the social desires and need of each individual in the group
  • Group work is carried on with voluntary group in the setting of social agency
  • Group workers tale care of social agencies in many fields as education, religious & recreational field.
  • It’s a helping process with duel purpose of individual & group growth.
  • The function of the group work is always for the betterment of the individual as well as for the growth of the entire group.
  • Group worker plays role of enabler & helping person, by earning an effective group. The group worker is a main person who by her/his better knowledge try to make the group better.

Family Crisis & Crisis Intervention

Crisis is a stressful event which has come accidentally. Crisis is defined as a situation in which the individual may perceive the stress factors or hazardous event as a threat.

Family Crisis:Family crisis means some stressful events come accidentally to a family. At the time of Family crisis, a person alone can’t cope up with the situation, whatever the situation but everyone have to face it. At the time of crisis a person need help from the all family members and not try to handle things alone. Going through a family crisis is one of the worst situation that any family can go through. Family is one of the most controversial social institution which face numbers of crisis.

Types of Family crisis :
  1. Family crisis related to Individual
  2. Family crisis related to Child bearing
  3. Related to Marital problem
  4. Abuse and violence
  5. Conflict with other systems
  6. Family deprivation
1. Family crisis related to individual:
  • Individual with disabled
  • Chronically/terminally ill
  • Psychopathic personality
  • Substance abuse
  • Unemployment
  • Illiteracy
  • Disability
  • Alcoholism
2. Family crisis related to child:
  • Infertility
  • Unwed Motherhood
  • Infanticide
  • Psycho-somatic problem of child
3. Related to marital problem:
  • Marital disharmony
  • Domestic violence
  • Dowry torture
  • Polygyny
4. Abuse and violence:
  • Child abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Teapism
5. Conflict with other system:
  • Family with poverty
  • Disease due to lack of sanitation
6. Deprivation:
  • Destitute women
  • Destitute children
  • Destitute adult and aged
Crisis Intervention:
A therapy/intervention which has given to a family to deal with some crisis to make free from that problem is called Crisis Intervention.

Methods of Crisis intervention:
  1. Immediate focus on the crisis situation
  2. Discuss about the current situation
  3. Make an attempt to partialise the situation
  4. Identify the specific problem with which the client is struggling
  5. Make the concrete crisis meeting activities

Characteristics of Group Work

Group work is essential to work with a systematic plan having understanding, we feelings and concentration. Group workers are viewed as helping persons whose job is to help people by identifying her/his problem, skill and ability.
Characteristic of Group work:
  1. Group work practiced by group itself
  2. It’s based on humanitarian philosophy
  3. It gives aspiration to help each other
  4. Group work provides more information and more skill
  5. It develop human personality
1. Group work is practiced by group itselfWith the help of group workers, development of the individual changes and personality growth are happen. The group practiced and take steps by his own worth and dignity by the help of its workers.

2. Based on humanitarian philosophy:Group work is based on humanitarian philosophy. A group get its inspiration from the happiness, joy and prosperity of the member of that particular group within a community. A group must have a belongingnessand group philosophy.

3. It gives aspiration to help each other:Because of living together, sharing problem and emotion of each other they get a aspiration to help each other.
The group help the individual when she/he is in problem.

4. It provides more skill and information:
After formation of a group by a worker the group member get more information and skill. Because ofbelongingness and helping mind the member can sharing their knowledge among themselves.They get more information about science, resources and techniques.
It develop human personality:
After making a group their networking with other groups, workers and agency develop their personality.

Qualities of Group worker:
Social group worker must have certain essential qualities where she/he brings harmony and co-operation between groups and the individuals on the basis of knowledge and experience. The group worker could only implement her/his work plan on the basis of few skilled essential assessment which are as follows:
  • Selection of group
  • Obtaining maximum information about group
  • Establishing purposeful relationship with the individual in the group
  • Knowledge about status of an individual and analyzing group situation
  • Suitable programme planning and programme implementation process
  • Knowledge about the available resources with in and out side the group
  • Optimum utilization of agency and group resources
  • Evaluating the programme.

Laws regarding Environment Protection

There has been substantive decline in environmental quality due to increaseing of pollution, loss of vesental and biological diversity, excessive concession of harmful chemical in the abident atmosphere and in food change. This changes leads to growing risk of environmental accident and threat to life support system.

Environment protection Act-1986This Act extend to the whole of India. Under this Act environment refers to water, air, land and the inter-relationship between water, air, land and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro organisms and property.
Section-3The Central Government constitute an authority under its direction and control for the protection of environment. 

Section 4The Central Government appoint officers with such designations as it deems fit, for the purpose of this Act and entrust to them such powers and functions deemed fit. 
Section 5Closure, prohibition and regulation of any Industry, Stoppage or regulation of the supply of electricity or water or any other service & the officer/authority connected shall be found to comply with such directions.

Environmental LaboratoryThe Central Government by notifications in the official gazette have establish environment laboratories in different part of Country. These laboratories are involves, concerning the entrusted activities related to environmental provisions under this Act. 

Environmental awarenessIn cinema halls, T.V, Radio & short term programmes in school and colleges information & messages given to people for protection and maintaining of environment.

Appointment of Climate ManagersTo fight against climate change and control of over pollution Govt. has planned to appoint trained climate managers in villages who create awareness among the people about natural disasters and how to face such crises. 

Other Laws related to Environment 
  • Share Nuisance Act-1853
  • The Indian Penal Code-1860
  • The Oriental Gas Company Act-1887
  • Water Prevention & control of pollution Act-1974
  • Air prevention & control of pollution Act-1981
  • Environment Protection Act-1986
  • The Factories Amendment Act-1987
  • The Air Prevention & Control of Pollution

Types of Group in Social Work Method

A group is essential to identify & solve the problems of a number of members within a community. Formation of group is essential in every where it may be in family, pioneer group or any institution.

Types of Groups:
  1. Primary group/small group
  2. Secondary group
Primary group:Primary group is small group in which a small number of persons come into direct contact with one-another. For Exp:Family, pioneer group
Characteristics of small group:
  • Physical proximity
  • Small in size
  • Stability
  • Similar status
  • Self interest towards group
  • Mutual sharing between individuals
Secondary groups:Secondary groups are consisting of a large number of people. For Exp:Labour party, Students union
Characteristics of secondary group:
  • Large in size
  • Formal and impersonal relationship
  • Active & Inactive
  • Indirect relationship
  • Goal oriented
  • State of individual

Community Organization a tool to empower Local People

Community Organization is a people oriented development process that encourages appropriate use of own resources, resulting in capacity building and willingness to contribute. It’s a process to empowering local people/vulnerable groups and createawareness, build stability at the local level.It is essential in the context of crisis and conflict to stabilize the livelihood strategies o0f people and to encourage their self-help potential.

Aims of Community Organization: 
  • To strengthen capacity & capabilities of local communities
  • To aware people about their potential
  • To encourage them to sustain by their own resources
  • To enhance local government
  • To facilitate into the local market economy
  • To close the gape between service provider & local people
  • To make local communities become partner in development
  • To make the community people self reliant
Principles of Community Organization :
  1. Contact
  2. Capacity promotion
  3. Social Responsibility
  4. Transparency & Accountability
  5. Sustainability
  6. Gender
  7. Harmlessness
1. Contact :Community organization establishes contact between all relevant persons and institutions and make open communication with partners involved in the project cycle.

2. Capacity promotion :Community organization aims at unfolding the capabilities and capacities of local partners and service providers. Its aim is to increase the ability of partners to handle such projects with less assistance in the future.

3. Social responsibility :
Community organization demands that the elite care about the more vulnerable in the villages. Vulnerablefamilies are to be integrated into the community.

4. Transparency and accountability :Every villager has the right to know about the technical procedures, the financial matters and the project components and its progress.
5. Sustainability :Community organization demands local responsibility, commitment and contributions to initiate ownership among those who benefit from the project.
6 Gender:Everyone within the community it may be female, male, young, old person or children
Should given rights & caring according to their need & capabilities.
7. Harmlessness :Community organization should finalize all conflicts within the community.

Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993

Human Rights means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by Courts in India.

Constitution of a National Human Rights Commission
 The Central Government shall constitute a body to be known as the National Human Rights Commission under the Human Rights Act of 1993 to exercise the powers conferred upon and to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act.

The Commission shall consists of 
  • A Chairperson who shall been a Chief justice of the Supreme Court
  • One member who is, or has been, a judge of the Supreme Court
  • One member who is, or has been the Chief Justice of a High Court
  • Two members to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to Human Rights
  • The Chairpersons of the National Commission for Minorities, the National Commission for the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes and the National Commission
  • There shall be a secretary general who shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Commission and shall exercise all powers
  • The head quarter of the Commission should be in Delhi  
Functions and powers of the commission
  • Inquire violence of the Human Rights
  • Visit jail or any or any other institution under the control of the state government, where persons are detained or lodged for purpose of treatment or protection to study
  • Review the safeguards provided by the Constitution
  • Review the factors, including facts of terrorism, that inhibits the enjoyment of human rights
  • Study treaties and other International instruments on human rights
  • Undertake and promote research in the field of human rights
  • Spread human right literacy among various sections of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, media, seminars
  • Encourage the efforts of non governmental organizations and institutions in the field of human rights
Human Rights Court
For the purpose of providing speedy trial of offences arising out of violation of human rights, the state government with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the High Court specify to the each district a court of session called as Human Rights Court.

The Origin of Earth Day

In 1963, because of the changeness in climate and increase of pollution in our earth the former Senator Gaylord Nelson began worry about our planet.He decided to have a special day to teach everyone about the things that needed changing in our environment.

He wrote letters to all of the colleges and put a special article in Scholastic Magazine to tell them about the special day he had planned. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held.

People all over the country made promises to help the environment. Everyone got involved and since then, Earth Day has spread all over the planet. People all over the world know that there are problems we need to work on and this is our special day to look at the planet and see what needs changing.

Other related issues
Apr 17 - Environmental Justice Volunteers Mobilize Nationwide for clean up Earth
Apr 16 - Green Technologies and Buildings Bloom on the National Mall
Apr 16 - New Campaign to Educate Kids on Fighting Climate Change

Beggary a "Social Problem"

Beggary is a major problem which is today affecting large population of India. There are large number of beggars in India who are forced in to doing begging because our societies fails in providing any good alternative to them.

For the last few centuries India has suffered acute poverty. From the ancient times, the main cause of poverty was various taxes. poverty, disability and unemployment is the problem of beggary which is a social problem.

The other issue is slightly more serious where large numbers of beggars are in begging for earning easy money. The major issues with this beggary problem are non awareness about this whole business, society’s failure, no humanitarian solutions and failure of government in stopping beggary because of which large number of children deprived from right to education & childhood. Indian government never tried to rectify the faulty system by repealing anti-poverty or beggary laws. In fact, poor women, children and elderly people need help from the government to obtain food and shelter.

Bombay Beggary Prevention Act 1960
An Act to consolidate and Where it is expedient to make uniform and better provision for the prevention of begging in the state of Bombay, for the detention training and employment of beggars and their dependents in certain institutions, for the custody, trial and punishment of beggar offenders and for other purposes to consolidate and the purpose of making uniform and better provision for the prevention of begging in Bombay, Government has amended the law relating to beggers.

Short title
This Act may be called the Bombay Prevention of Begging Act, 1959.

It extends to the whole of the Union Territory, Delhi.
It shall come into force on such date as the Chief Commissioner may by notification in the Delhi Gazette, appoint.

DefinitionsIn this Act, 
"begging" means:- 
  • Soliciting or receiving alms, in a public place whether or not doing such as signing, dancing, fortune telling, performing or offering any article for sale;
  • Entering on any private premises or the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;
  • Exposing or exhibiting, with the object of obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound injury, deformity of diseases whether of a human being or animal;
  • Having no visible means of subsistence and wandering, about or remaining in any public place in such condition or manner, as makes it likely that the person doing so exist soliciting or receiving alms.
But does not include soliciting or receiving money or food or given for a purpose authorises by any law, or authorised in the manner prescribed by the Deputy Commissioner or such other officer as be specified in this behalf by the Chief Commissioner.

The government of Bangladesh is banning beggars. With a law approved in an open vote, the parliament has decided that anyone who asks for charity in public, or displays handicaps or mutilations in order to obtain money, will be punished with three months in prison.

According to United Nations estimates, about 40% of the population as around 150 million live under poverty line and forceable to do begging. As per the latest estimates available for the year 1999-2001, Jammu and Kashmir has the lowest percentage of people living below the poverty line (3.48%) and Orissa has the highest percentage of people living below the poverty line (47.15%).