Thursday, 27 February 2014

UNESCO released the 11th Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013 – 14 on 28 January 2014. The theme of the report was Teaching and Learning: Achieving quality for all.

UNESCO released the 11th Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013 – 14 on 28 January 2014. The theme of the report was Teaching and Learning: Achieving quality for all. The report warns that despite advances made in education, not a single goal laid down in Dakar, Senegal in 2000 will be achieved globally by 2015.
The EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013-14 vividly underlines the fact that people in the most marginalized groups have continued to be denied opportunities for education over the decade. The Report has advocated to put in place a robust global post-2015 education framework to tackle unfinished business while addressing new challenges.
It further said that post-2015 education goals will only be achieved if they are accompanied by clear, measurable targets with indicators tracking that no one is left behind, and if specific education financing targets for governments and aid donors are set.
The Main Highlights of the Report
Goal 1: Pre-primary Education: Despite improvements, far too many children lack early childhood care and education. In 2012, 25% of children under-5 suffered from stunting. In 2011, around half of young children had access to pre-primary education, and in sub-Saharan Africa the share was only 18%.
Goal 2: Universal Primary Education: Universal primary education is likely to be missed by a wide margin. The number of children out of school was 57 million in 2011, half of whom lived in conflict-affected countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 23% of poor girls in rural areas were completing primary education by the end of the decade. If recent trends in the region continue, the richest boys will achieve universal primary completion in 2021, but the poorest girls will not catch up until 2086.
Goal 3: Lower Secondary Education: Many adolescents lack foundation skills gained through lower secondary education. In 2011, 69 million adolescents were out of school, with little improvement in this number since 2004. In low income countries, only 37% of adolescents completed lower secondary education, and the rate is as low as 14% for the poorest. On recent trends, girls from the poorest families in sub-Saharan Africa are only expected to achieve lower secondary completion in 2111.
Goal 4: Adult Literacy: Adult literacy has hardly improved. In 2011, there were 774 million illiterate adults, a decline of just 1% since 2000. The number is projected to fall only slightly, to 743 million, by 2015. Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women. The poorest young women in developing countries may not achieve universal literacy until 2072.
Goal 5: Primary Education Gender Disparity: Gender disparities remain in many countries. Even though gender parity was supposed to be achieved by 2005, in 2011 only 60% of countries had achieved this goal at the primary level and 38% at the secondary level.
Goal 6: Lower Secondary Education Gender Parity: Poor quality of education means millions of children are not learning the basics. Around 250 million children are not learning basic skills, even though half of them have spent at least four years in school. The annual cost of this failure is around 129 billion dollars. The key to improve gender parity in lower secondary education is investing in teachers. In around a third of countries, less than 75% of primary school teachers are trained according to national standards. And in a third of countries, the challenge of training existing teachers is worse than that of recruiting and training new teachers.
Global Monitoring Report and India
According to the Report, in India there are two issues i.e. access and quality. While the Right to Education (Act) has almost taken care of the access part, the government next target is to now focus on improving quality.
The main highlights of the Report in context of India are:
•    In India, education accounts for 10.5% of the total government expenditure which is 3.3% of the GNP (gross national product).
•    The expenditure on education was below the target of 6%. In fact the spending on education has declined over the period 1999 – 2011. The decline was witnessed in both terms, that is, as a percentage of budgeted expenditure an as a percentage of GNP. In 1999, the spending on education was 13% of the total budgeted expenditure and 4.4% of the GNP.
•    India has the highest population of illiterate adults, 287 million which is 37% of the total population of such people across the world.
•    In India, even after completing four years of school, 90% of children from poorer household remain illiterate.
•    The UN body has advised countries including India to improve their tax regimes so as to provide more funds to the education sector.
•    In India, rich young women have already achieved universal literacy but the poorest will only do so around 2080.
•   Allocation for education in India varies widely across states. The expenditure of Kerala on education on per pupil was about 685 dollar per year while in Himachal Pradesh it was 542 dollar. In contrast, in West Bengal it was 127 dollar and in Bihar 100 dollar.
An Analysis
This 11th EFA Global Monitoring Report provides a timely update on progress that countries are making towards the global education goals that were agreed in 2000. It also makes a powerful case for placing education at the heart of the global development agenda after 2015. In 2008, the EFA Global Monitoring Report asked – ‘will we make it?’ With less than two years left before 2015, this Report makes it clear that we will not.
In this light Report calls on Governments to redouble efforts to provide learning to all who face disadvantages – whether from poverty, gender, where they live or other factors. Besides, governments must step up efforts to recruit an additional 1.6 million teachers to achieve universal primary education by 2015.  Consequently the Report has identified four strategies to provide the best teachers to reach all children with a good quality education.
First, the right teachers must be selected to reflect the diversity of the children they will be teaching. Second, teachers must be trained to support the weakest learners, starting from the early grades. Third, overcome inequalities in learning by allocating the best teachers to the most challenging parts of a country. Fourth, governments must provide teachers with the right mix of incentives to encourage them to remain in the profession and to make sure all children are learning, regardless of their circumstances. But teachers cannot shoulder the responsibility alone. The Report shows also that teachers can only shine in the right context, with well-designed curricula and assessment strategies to improve teaching and learning. These policy changes have a cost. This is why we need to see a dramatic shift in funding. Basic education is currently underfunded by 26 billion dollars a year, while aid is continuing to decline. At this stage, governments simply cannot afford to reduce investment in education – nor should donors step back from their funding promises. This calls for exploring new ways to fund urgent needs.
About the Global Monitoring Report
The Education for All Global Monitoring Report was established in 2000 at Dakar in Senegal. The main objective of the Report is to inform, influence and sustain commitment to achieving the Education for All goals by 2015. At the UNESCO Summit in April 2000, 1100 participants from 164 countries adopted the Dakar Framework for Action, Education for All: Meeting Our Collective Commitments. These participants agreed upon six wide-ranging education goals to be met by 2015.

Friday, 21 February 2014

The Basics of Community Organizing

The Basics of Community Organizing

Form a core group: Identify people who are committed to improving conditions for your 
community and who would be interested in initiating a community organizing effort. 
o Identify an issue: At a meeting of community members interested in working on an 
organizing effort, identify an issue that everyone agrees to. (See handout entitled, "How 
to Organize and Facilitate a Community Meeting"). 
o Identify a mission and goals: All organizing efforts or campaigns should have an overall 
mission that clearly describes its purpose and what participants hope to accomplish with 
it. There should also be short-term, intermediate-term (optional), and long-term goals that 
are specific and achievable. 
All campaigns have two kinds of goals: external goals and internal goals. External goals are 
the public goals: the policy you want to change, the legislation you want passed. The 
internal goals are your organizational and base building objectives: how do you build your 
organization and get more people involved. 

Identify allies: Who will be helpful and supportive of your organizing efforts? Identify 
individuals, groups, institutions, etc. that have influence over the issue on which you're 
working. How are you going to gain their support? 
Opposition: Will there be opposition? If so, who will they be and how will you deal 
with them? 
o Develop a blueprint or strategy: What is your general plan for accomplishing your goal? 
In developing a strategy, identify appropriate tools. Examples of tools are 
demonstrations; meetings with elected representatives; calls, faxes, letters, etc. to a 
targeted legislator, company, agency; press conferences, letters to the editor, and other 
media outreach. 
Decide on concrete activities: These should be very specific. How many calls, letters, 
faxes etc. do you want to generate? How many press conferences do you want to hold? 
How many lobby days do you want to organize? 
o Timeline: Working backward from the end of the campaign, what do you want to 
accomplish at each stage of the campaign. 
o Recruit People: The heart of your organizing effort is people. Engaging and retaining 
people in the initiative are an on-going effort. 
Tools for recruiting people include: 
1. Tabling - Set up a small table with literature about the issue and campaign, and talk to 
people about them. Find out if a permit is required for tabling before doing it. 
2. Flyering - Distribute literature about the issue and campaign, and talk to people about 
them. Don't be aggressive. 
3. Promoting - Speak about the campaign at cultural events, religious gatherings, sports 
events, meetings of other groups, etc. Make sure to get advanced approval for your 
4. Surveying - Collect the opinions and sentiments of individuals on a particular issue or 
range of issues. The survey should be related to your campaign. 
Canvassing - Knock on the doors of people's homes to talk to them about the 
campaign and issue. Don't get upset if people are unresponsive or curt. Remember 
that you're knocking on their door unsolicited. 
6. Ask current members to invite other people they know. 
People who are or become involved in the organizing campaign will have various skills and 
expertise. Ask them to be open about their strengths and encourage them to take on tasks 
that they are best suited for. That is also one way to keep people engaged; if feels good to 
be useful! Of course, people should also feel comfortable to work in areas that they are 
curious about and would like to acquire skills in, preferably with guidance and support 
from others. 
o Keep and Engage People: 
1. Stay in touch with one another - Regular contact is vital. Face to face is best. 
2. Welcome newcomers - Introduce them to members of your group. Consider 
appointing greeters for large meetings and events. Call new contacts to invite them to 
events. Help people find a place in the organization. The most appealing approach is 
to say, "Tell us the things you like to do and do well and we will fmd a way to use 
those talents." 
3. Act more, meet less - Most people dislike 
meetings. It is better to focus most of your time 
on doing activities. 
4. Keep time demands modest - Make sure people 
don't feel overwhelmed. Keep expanding the 
number of active members to ensure everyone does 
a little, and no one does too much. Work out 
realistic time commitments for projects. 
5. Do it in twos - Working in pairs improves the 
quality of communication, makes work less lonely, 
and ensures tasks get done. 
6. Provide social time and activities - Endless work 
drives people away. Schedule social time at the 
beginning or end ofmeetings. Also, it's a good idea 
to periodically organize social and community building events. 
7. Provide skills training - Provide skill-building workshops or incorporate an education 
component into the general meetings. Simply pairing experienced and inexperienced 
people will improve the skills of new members. 
8. Generate consensus - Consensus is a decision-making process through which groups 
work towards a decision that can be agreed to by most, if not all, participants. Before 
a decision is made, all opinions are carefully considered, including ones that are 
different from the majority. Though this process can be more time consuming than 
decisions made by majority vote, it also promotes greater investment in and 
commitment to a group. It is important to have consensus throughout the organizing 
effort. Participants should always feel that they have a voice or they may not stay 
o Identify materials: Identify materials that you'll need to perform different tasks. For 
example, a microphone for a press conference or speak-out, a car or bus to travel to a 
meeting, easel paper and markers for a community forum, a table for tabling, etc. Most 
materials will require money, though some may be donated or borrowed. 
Tools to raise money include applying for grants from foundations; fund-raising events 
(e.g., parties or cultural events); and collecting donations from the community and 
businesses in the community. When doing fund-raising, be clear on what the moneys will 
be used for. 
AssessmentlEvaluation: To be able to learn from and improve an organizing effort, it is 
necessary to reflect on how it has progressed and what outcomes it has had. Everyone 
involved in the effort should participate in the evaluation. Some questions to ask are: 
What were the goals of the effort? What goals have been met or not met and why? Have 
goals that have been met improved conditions for the community? What were the 
expectations and did they materialize? Why or why not? What strategies and tools have 
been effective or ineffective? What additional resources are needed? What groups have 
been most supportive? What have been the greatest challenges? 

Wednesday, 12 February 2014

Educational Effects of Social Exclusion

Education is widely perceived as playing a pivotal role in the
prevention of social exclusion. It would firstly seem important to
assess briefly definitions of social exclusion in order to further
analyse its relationship with education. The degree to which education
can affect social exclusion is mediated by a number of interrelated
factors, which can be broadly categorized into ‘school’ and
non-school’ elements. These factors must be analysed in order to
ascertain how they effect individual attainment within the education
system, which thus affects the long-term biographies of individuals
and may perhaps hold some answers to the reproduction of social
exclusion. Following this discussion, it would seem necessary to
analyse the effects of educational attainment for the individual. The
majority of literature regarding this subject has focused upon
employment opportunities, an emphasis which seems justified for two
reasons. Firstly, while social exclusion’s multi-faceted nature is
accepted as self-evident, a central component is identified with the
poverty associated with limited prospects for employment. Secondly, a
disassociation, or rejection by, the labour market is seen as greatly
reducing both self-agency and self-esteem, compounding the problem of
securing employment further. Thus, it would seem fair to concentrate
upon employment and the labour market as a key area in which the
educational effects of social exclusion are of long-term significance
for the individual. However, poor educational attainment has also
been shown to be associated with other markers of social inclusion (or
exclusion), such as poorer reported general health, depression and a
lower probability of voting in general elections. However, as with
most elements of this subject, the issue of causality, as opposed to
correlation, must be considered.

Although the term ‘social exclusion’ has been used to refer to
existing concepts such as poverty or unemployment, a broader
definition is most typically used which centres around the notion of
integration rather than solely concerning the distribution of
resources. Burchardt et al. (1998) have thus defined social exclusion
as a long-term non-participation in ‘the economic, civic and social
norms that integrate and govern the society in which an individual
resides.’ Thus, in theory, attempts to capture the ways in which
education contributes to social exclusion should seek to capture the
ability of different population sub-groups to participate in a number
of key dimensions of social activity. Burchardt et al. identify the
key dimensions of participation as production, consumption, wealth,
political activity and social life. However, as mentioned above, the
area of production via employment, which is seen as creating
opportunities for consumption and the building of wealth, has been,
perhaps justifiably, focused upon.

As discussed later, many of the long-term risks of social exclusion
for the individual are rooted in educational attainment. However,
such attainment is determined by a variety of factors, many of which
are, in themselves, inextricably linked with social exclusion. A
number of macro-level factors can be identified as strongly
influencing what both schools and pupils can achieve in the domains of
formal qualifications and generic skills. Firstly, one must view
changing socio-demographic factors; most notably perhaps increases in
the rates of family instability, sole parenthood, teenage pregnancy
and motherhood, and immigration, asylum seeking and refugee settlement
(Sparkes and Glennerster 2002). Together, it has been argued, these
changes create conditions in which children and young people
experience higher levels of mobility, leading to interrupted
schooling, and greater insecurity. Secondly, changes in the structure
of the labour market can be seen to have affected demand for labour
and young people’s routes to independence and adulthood. Many
researchers have noted the decline in available stable and permanent
employment for young people and the increasing instability of this
sector of the labour market. This, in turn, has meant that the
transition to work is lengthening, becoming more fragmentary and more
dependent on the possession of qualifications. Green et al. (1998)
have noted that, in 1986, 62 per cent of jobs required qualifications,
whilst by 1997 this figure had increased to 69 per cent. Brynner
(2001) has argued that such trends are likely to continue and
intensify in the future, leading to increasing alienation from the
labour market for those without such qualifications which, in term has
long term significance for the individual in terms of social
exclusion. Finally, a number of studies have highlighted the impact
of policy changes geared to improving school performance and the
increasing parental choice of schools in creating marked divergences
in attainment between schools and between pupils of different ability
levels. This argument has been supported by findings that, despite an
aggregate improvement in attainment at all key stages, a long tail of
underachievement remains. Low attainment has been shown to be
particularly apparent among some ethnic minority groups and pupils on
free school meals (West and Pennell 2003). Thus, one could argue that
these macro-level changes have hindered the ability of education to
prevent a cycle of social exclusion that begins in childhood and
continues, and is perhaps exacerbated by, changes in
socio-demographic, labour market and policy factors.

In understanding factors that affect educational attainment, it seems
important to acknowledge the prevalence of both school and non-school
factors. Improvements in schools with disadvantaged pupils may seem
one clear way in which education can reduce social exclusion and thus
benefit the future of an individual. Indeed, case studies of schools
with ‘below average intakes’ (Sparkes 1999) who succeed ‘against the
odds’ have been found to emphasise the importance of leadership, built
on a team approach, a vision of success, careful use of targets, an
improved physical environment, common expectations regarding pupils’
behaviour and success and investment in good parent and community
relations (National Commission on Education 1996). However, it has
been argued that, ‘it cannot be assumed that such strategies will
contribute to greater social inclusiveness….If all schools performed
as well as the best schools, the stratification of attainment of
achievement by social class would be even more stark than it is now.
This would happen because socially advantaged children in highly
effective schools would achieve even more than they do now in less
conducive environments and the gap between them and their less
advantaged peers would increase’ (Mortimore and Whitty 1999).
Furthermore, the creation of targets and league tables for schools may
exacerbate this problem by encouraging teachers to focus upon those
pupils most likely to reach the desired level, consequently paying
little or no attention to those at lower levels. Thus, some processes
explicitly designed to raise standards within the education system may
exclude and create disaffection among pupils at the lowest end of the
spectrum of academic ability. These factors are argued to have
brought about a situation in which a large minority of troubled,
disadvantaged and ‘less academic’ children and young people do not
gain appropriate benefit from their education, and may become trapped
in a cycle of low attainment and poor self-esteem, and consequently
may be excluded formally from school or self-exclude via truancy.
Such processes, it has been argued, thus present the possibility that
schools may, in some cases, maintain or even exacerbate problems of
social exclusion that, as is argued later, have significant effects
upon the long-term futures of such individuals.

Truancy and formal exclusion have been widely reported to have
extremely detrimental effects for young people. The 1997 Education
Bill aimed to further strengthen schools’ powers of exclusion, which,
when combined with the pressure upon schools to meet targets and
perform well in league tables, have had dramatic effects upon the
rates of exclusion. Exclusion is associated with poor levels of
basic skills, poverty and unemployment, limited aspirations, family
difficulties, poor relationships ad racism (Walker and Walker 1997).
Although these factors should not be viewed in isolation, in
combination they may form part of a pattern that may have important
consequences for long-term social exclusion, especially as three
quarters of pupils permanently excluded at secondary level do not
return to mainstream schooling (Gillborn and Gipps 1996).

Another factor, which has emerged as an important determinent of
attainment, is the quality and behaviour of teachers in the
classroom. Dearden et al (1997) showed, using analysis of NCDS data,
that teacher experience, which is reflected in salary level, has
observable affects on pupils’ earnings in later life, although not
their attainment of formal qualifications. The explanation given for
this disparity is that more experienced teachers are more effective in
helping pupils attain the ‘generic’ or ‘soft’ skills favoured by
employers. This issue brings to light the important idea that
educational attainments cannot be measured simply in terms of academic
qualifications. Moss and Tilley(1995) found that, amongst American
employers, 86 per cent included ‘soft skills’ such as communication,
customer handling and team working, in a list of their most important
hiring criteria.

However, low educational attainment is also associated with several
‘non-school’ factors that can have long-term consequences for the
individual. Sparkes (1999) has argued that, in order to isolate the
value added by schools, ‘appropriate’ allowance is often made for
socio-economic variables and prior attainment to control for
differential school intakes. Thus, inequalities in final educational
outcomes arising from background factors may be at risk of becoming
acceptable and even regarded as inevitable. A child’s
characteristics, in terms primarily of poor health, psychological or
behavioural problems and experience of institutional care, have been
shown to be strongly associated with low attainment. However, the
personal characteristic reported as explaining the highest proportion
of variance in attainment is prior attainment. This, however has not
been found to be the result of innate variations in genetic
intelligence, but has been found to be strongly associated with
socio-economic variables. Consequently, a broad consensus can be
found in literature concerning this issue that there is potential for
intervention in the early years of development that can improve later
attainment (Bynner 2001). The association between poor or unstable
family circumstances and children’s educational attainment is long
established. Bynner and Parsons (2001) have shown the powerful role
of socio-economic factors in creating social exclusion. In particular
low income and poverty has emerged as having a strong and independent
effect on educational attainment. Hobcraft’s (2000) analysis of NCDS
data, which focused specifically on the roles of schooling and
educational qualifications in the emergence of adulthood exclusion,
has confirmed the key role of childhood poverty in predicting
‘negative adult outcomes’ and social exclusion, largely via low
attainment. Experience of family disruption, particularly early
experience of life in a lone-parent family or in a re-constituted
family before the age of five, has also been found to be of
significance in relation to educational attainment, whilst children in
institutional care are often pinpointed as those most affected. More
than 75 per cent of children in care leave school without
qualifications, whilst 80 per cent of care leavers remain unemployed
for 2.5 years after leaving school, compared to 9-16 per cent of the
general population.

The relationship between social exclusion and education is necessarily
affected by factors outside the confines of the school. In this way,
it seems possible to gain some understanding of the limits of the
educational system, in itself, to prevent a continuous cycle of social
exclusion throughout an individual’s life course, and how education
can benefit young people in highly variable ways. Furthermore,
non-school variables are highly interdependent, whilst their
cumulative effect may be greater than the simple sum of separate
factors. In this way, it is possible to view multiple disadvantage as
having devastating implications for educational attainment. Thus,
education can be seen in some ways as an uneven mediating factor
between childhood and adult social exclusion, which may serve to
widen, or at least reinforce such divisions, rather than preventing

Having assessed the ways in which rates of educational attainment can
vary according to both macro and micro level factors, it would now
seem important to assess how these differential attainments have
long-term significance for individuals. Educational attainment, in
the form of qualifications and test scores, during compulsory
schooling has been identified as ‘the most frequent and effective
childhood predictor of adult outcomes’, and of social exclusion
(Hobscraft 1998). Brynner and Parsons (1998) have also emphasised the
impact on adult outcomes of poor basic skills, especially for
individuals at high risk of social exclusion from other factors. Thus
indicating that, ‘individuals who leave schools with low levels of
educational attainment and poor basic skills are at a high risk of
experiencing social exclusion as adults, with those who lack basic
literacy and numeracy skills at particular risk’ (Sparkes 1999). This
assertion is supported by evidence that only 2 per cent of jobs are
open to those with Basic Skills Agency ‘entry-level skill’, and only
fifty per cent of jobs to those with skill level one (Sparkes and
Glennerster 2002). This study reports evidence not only of strong
associations between low attainment and poor access to the labour
market in the early stages of working life, but also higher risks of
spells of unemployment between the ages of 16 and 21, low earnings and
housing tenure at the age of 37. Robinson and Oppenheim (1998) found
that attainment of 1 to 4 GCSEs at grades A to C increased earnings by
17 percent, whilst five or more increased earnings by 41 per cent
compared with individuals with no qualifications. In terms of post
compulsory education, two or more A-levels increased earnings by 67
per cent, whilst a degree led to a 111 per cent increase. Thus, one
can conclude that the educational effects of social exclusion, and
subsequent variations in attainment, can have serious effects upon
employment opportunities which affect individuals in the long-term,
not only economically, but also in terms of self-identity and

An important division has thus emerged between education per se, and
educational attainment. The latter gives an individual the possibility
of long-term success and social inclusion; however, the former whilst
attempting to give this opportunity to the majority of young people,
stratifies such possibilities and seemingly holds them elusive to a
significant minority of pupils who are most at risk of longer-term
social exclusion. Whilst general levels of educational attainment
have improved in Britain, significant numbers of young people continue
to leave school without attaining qualifications. An analysis of GCSE
attainment shows a year on year improvement in the proportion of young
people attaining five GCSEs at grade A to C, however, the proportion
leaving with no GCSEs has remained stable since the late 1980s
(Sparkes 1999). Thus, in recent years, the gap between the highest
and lowest attaining pupils has grown. Furthermore, the more
consistent level of those leaving school with no qualifications is not
matched by a consistent availability within the labour market of
employment opportunities for such individuals.

In conclusion, educational attainment has the capacity to have
far-reaching and significant positive long-term effects for the
individual. However, the ability of education to offer such
opportunities is highly influenced by an existing social structure
which continues to reproduce itself due not only to the fact that
non-school factors and, in particular existing familial social
exclusion, have a large impact upon the likelihood of such attainment,
but also because the education system itself may serve to strengthen
and promote these divides. Whilst levels of educational
qualifications are increasing in Britain overall, there continues to
be a section of society which is, it seems, not able to reap the
rewards of these opportunities, and who remain socially excluded due
largely to measures seemingly designed to benefit the majority of
young people and reinforce the barrier between them and this
significant minority.

Tuesday, 11 February 2014


Development is influenced by power structures of the community. People who are influential can mobilize a major segment of the community. For example; in fund raising drive some people can move behind other people and institutions. There are two models of community power structure. The stratification model and the pluralist mode are the two models of power structures.

Stratification model suggests that social class principally determines the distribution of community power. According to this model the power structure in community is composed of stable upper class elite whose interest and outlook on community affairs are relatively homogeneous.

According to pluralist model, it rejects the idea that a small homogeneous group dominates community decision-making. But there are numerous small special interest groups that cut across class lines, which are represented in the community decision-making. These are interest groups with overlapping memberships, widely differing power bases, have influences on decisions. Community decisions are the result of the interactions of these different interest groups. This theoretical orientation can help the community organizer in his action.

The organizer has to identify the members of the power structure for community organization. Floyd Hunter, an executive director of a community welfare council, wrote classic volumes on community power structure. His method of locating community elites is known as the reputation approach. The basic procedure is to ask a group of informants who are knowledgeable about the community to list the people they believe to be most influential in the community affairs.

There may be variations on this procedure with regard to how informants are selected, and how questions are put in. By tallying those people most frequently named as influential leaders we can identify the core of the community power structure. Position approach is another method of locating the members of the power structure based on the assumption of stratification model. This approach assumes that people holding the highest office in the community are at the top of the power structure. By scanning the executive lists of the important social political and economic organizations in the community, one can quickly compile a list of members of the power structure. This approach requires fewer efforts than the reputation approach. Community power is directly related with Community Organization. Participation of people is related with power.

In Community Organization community power holders are involved to induce people’s participation in order to achieve the organizations objectives. Sometimes if the existing power centres are not for Community Organizational objectives, then a new centre of power is created to get people’s commitment and mass participation. The organizer needs to study power structure and Community Organization process is carried out successfully through leaders. For example, people are organized to implement family planning. For this the leader is motivated for people’s participation. In some villages the leader opposes family planning. In this situation the community organizer has to identify a new powerful leader to implement family planning. Otherwise it is not possible to implement family planning in the village.



Interviewing is the tool, which among all social work techniques is most constantly used. Social workers very frequently find themselves in need of inducing people to talk fully, freely, and truthfully.

Interview is defined as "a mutual view or sight; a meeting face to face; usually a formal meeting for consultation; for a conference; for eliciting information by questioning; an interview is a visit for the purpose of obtaining particulars respecting a person or his opinions" and attitudes.

From a common sense point of view interviewing seems to be a specialized form of conversation, through which experiences are exchanged, our attitudes are revealed, and our views are expressed.

A social worker may be trained, he may be experienced; but unless he is also a good interviewer, with all that the term implies, he cannot lay claim to that much higher qualification than merely conveyed by the words trained social worker.

There are three major functional types of interview, particularly in Social Case Work. Those are:
1. Diagnostic Interview,
2. Research Interview, and
3. Therapeutic Interview.

These are rarely mutually exclusive; elements of the diagnostic interview frequently enter into the therapeutic interview or into the research interview, and conversely. Social therapy, on the other hand, may start even with the first question of an interview which aims primarily to secure information, and the securing of information may not be complete even at the final therapeutic interview.



While having communications related positions in the non-profit sector is not something unheard of in the past, the rising value of development communications roles in the sector is a relatively new development. A simple look into job listings at non-profit organizations will most likely result in at least a handful of openings that involve communications roles.

So, what exactly is development communications and what does it involve? According a report from the World Bank, it is “communication that supports sustainable change in development operations by engaging key stakeholders.” Depending on the organization, the role itself can involve a number of different things. For the most part, the major responsibilities include materials development, public and press engagement, messaging, and in some cases, event planning and fundraising as well.

A development communications role involves creating materials such as newsletters, reports, marketing and donor materials etc. geared towards different target audiences. From customized materials to attract donors to videos and website content to engage the public, the range of materials may vary, but what is of growing importance in a communications role is the ability to use a multitude of communication tools to EFFECTIVELY TELL AN ORGANIZATION’S STORY. Going hand in hand, a communications position (particularly a higher-level role) would also involve overseeing the strategic message of the organization as a whole and ensuring the DELIVERY OF AA COMMON MESSAGE. In smaller or mid-sized non-profits that do not have an entire team, one can be found wearing multiple hats. Along with PUBLIC AND PRESS ENGAGEMENT, some communications roles also involve engaging in fundraising activities, scheduling and event planning.

With rapidly growing rates of information exchange as well as the tools to get the information across, the rise of development communications in the non-profit sector has as much to do on the technological end as it does on the evolving nature of NGOs and the public. The need to stay connected with the public, donors, peers and various other stakeholders continues to grow and also plays an important role in the overall well-being of an organization.

So, what are some of the basic skills for someone interested in development communications? For starters, most job listings seem to specify a degree in Communications, Journalism or a related field. However, having knowledge in development related issue areas such as health, micro-finance etc. in which the concerned organization focuses its work on is also as important. It also requires excellent WRITTEN AND VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS, along with copy editing skills. Being able to effectively write content that is catered to different audiences is a must. If you have samples to demonstrate your work, it will only make your case stronger. Expertise in SOCIAL MEDIA APPLICATIONS and MULTIMEDIA TOOLS is expected. Being proactive early on in this area by creating profiles and mastering the use of these tools could prove to be beneficial. There are a number of blogs and other online resources that can be used easily, many of which are free. Experts also suggest creating a BLOG where you can demonstrate your work readily.

While basic proficiency on applications such as PowerPoint will be expected, having some design experience (Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop etc.) could also be very useful. A recent emerging trend that continues to be adopted by organizations is the use of INFO-GRAPHIC AND DATA VISUALIZATION to tell stories about specific issues and demonstrate an organization’s work. In smaller to mid-sized organizations, there may not be a complete team, which means that BEING FLEXIBLE and willing to take up multiple projects is something one should be prepared to do. Lastly, getting experience through an internship or volunteer opportunity would be the best way to go about exploring the field and honing your skills. 



CDD is a way to design and implement development policy and projects that facilitates access to social, human and physical capital assets for rural people by creating the condition for:

• Transforming rural development agents from top-down planners into client oriented service providers;

• Empowering rural communities to take initiatives for their ownsocioeconomic development (i.e., building on community assets);

• Enabling community level organizations – specially those of the rural poor – to play a role in designing and implementing policies and programmes that effect their livelihoods; and

• Enhancing the impact of public expenditures on the local economy at the community level

CDD appreciates:

• the role that community-based organizations (CBOs) play in decisions about the economic and social development processes that directly affect the livelihood of their members;

• the development of a culture within public administration that views communities as subjects of change and development partners in their own right, rather than as mere receivers of the benefits of public expenditure.

According to this definition, CDD refers more to the way a policy or a project is designed and implemented than to the content of a policy or to the components of an investment project or programme.

CDD objectives

The overall objective of CDD is to enable rural poor people to overcome poverty sustainably, more equitably and with more efficient use of resources. This may be achieved by:

• Establishing an enabling institutional environment for the emergence of dynamic community organizations;

• Developing community-level rural infrastructure;

• Fostering the local economy at the community level;

• Diversifying the sources of external support for CBOs.



Mahatma Gandhi had proposed the trusteeship approach for managing the public charitable trusts. A trustee is one who holds property in trust for another or others. The concept of trusteeship implies stewardship without ownership. Such stewardship is not for private profit, but for the greatest good of all. 

The existing laws in India on Public Trusts and Societiesestablished for betterment of life and public good have adopted the concept of Trusteeship. Each Trustee of such an organization, in whatsoever designation, either as .Trustee or as Member of the Board, Executive Committee, Managing Committee or General Body is responsible for the proper management of the properties and programmes of the Trust. The moment one accepts responsibility as a Trustee, one by implication accepts the responsibility of properly managing the activities of the concerned body without any scope of causing “Loss to the Trust”.

Thus every Trustee or the Manager by implication is duty bound to ensure proper functioning of the Trust/Society within the legal framework applicable to such Trust/Society. Trustees are expected to ensure adequate, appropriate and prudent use of all financial, material, intangible and human resources and apply them solely for achieving the objectives of the Trust/Society. The Trustees are thus duty bound to ensure effective and efficient functioning of the organization. To achieve these obligations, it is important to maintain and enhance organizational credibility by evolving and observing various accounting procedures, disclosure standards and monitoring mechanisms. And this in turn, can be achieved by adopting and promoting good governance of the organization.


In the case of a non-profit organization, governance relates to consistent management, cohesive policies, guidance, processes and right decision for a given area of responsibility.

Governance refers to how an organization controls its actions. Governance describes the mechanisms an organization uses to ensure that its constituents follow its established processes and policies. It is the primary means of maintaining oversight and accountability of the organization. Proper governance strategy implements systems to monitor and record what is going on, takes steps to ensure compliance with agreed policies, and provides for corrective action in cases where the rules have been ignored or misconstrued.


Good Governance has eight major characteristics. It is (i) Participatory, (ii) Consensus oriented, (iii) Accountable, (iv) Transparent, (v) Responsive, (vi) Equitable & Inclusive, (vii) Effective & Efficient, and (viii) Follows the rule of law.

• Participatory: Participation by members of the General Body and Managing Committee is a key corner stone of good governance. It could be either direct or through representatives and needs to be informed and organized. This means active involvement and participation of all the members in the management of the organization. We need to do away with the concept of “show-pieces”, “glory seekers” and those who only turn up to sign the attendance register during formal meetings.

• Consensus oriented: There are several actors and many view points each in and every organization. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable management of activities and programs and how to achieve the goals of such development.

• Accountable: Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. The NGOs must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to whom varies, depending on whether decisions or actions taken in an organization or institution are internal or external. An organization or an institution is generally accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.

• Transparent: Transparency means that decisions are taken and enforced in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.

• Responsive: Good governance requires that organizations serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. This component could well be supported by ensuring accountability of all activities and accounting entries of the organization. This component would require projecting all the activities and dealings in the manner that accountability of operations is properly reflected.

• Equity and inclusiveness: A society’s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, particularly the most vulnerable, to have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being. It would mean the active involvement and participation of all the stakeholders and specially the members of General Body and the Managing Committee in all decision making, policy matters and the planning process. To achieve inclusiveness, the organizations need to develop a system of reporting back to members through appropriate formal or informal means.

• Effectiveness and efficiency: Good governance means that processes and institutions show results that meet the objectives of organizations while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of community resources and available financial, material and human resources. The concepts of keeping Trustees motivated and involved and seeking support and participation of volunteers are very important in this context.

• Rule of law: Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. The members must be aware about their legal responsibilities, liabilities and obligations of becoming members.. They should be aware about the key provision of the Act which govern roles, responsibilities and liabilities of the members of different classes.


Good government depends on an ability to exercise power, and to make good decisions over time, across a spectrum of economic, social, environmental and other areas. This is linked with the organization’s capacity for knowledge, mediation, resource allocation, implementation and maintenance of key relationships. Part of the institutionalisation of civil society participation is the setting of norms by which to regulate participation in development processes. Here are some of the tools available to respond to the governance challenge: self-assessment, self-regulation, accreditation and adherence to international standards.

• Self-assessment: Self-assessment is a first tool for monitoring whether an organization is using its resources and capacities effectively towards its stated mission and objectives. One approach to self-assessment is for an organization to launch a critical survey amongst key internal and external stakeholders, so as to reveal any substantial differences of perception.

• Self-regulation: Since the late 1990s, civil societies - particularly NGOs - have engaged in self-regulation schemes geared to improve openness, accountability and public confidence in the sector. A first step towards self-regulation is setting up standards for moral, social and ethical behaviour in the form of a code of conduct. This lays out guidelines applicable not only to civil society organizations, but also to their members, officials, employees and volunteers. Most codes of conduct acknowledge that to ensure 'good governance' within civil society, organizations require appropriate institutions through which the principles of accountability, transparency, fairness and equity can be implemented.

• Accreditation: Moving one step further is the setting up of an independent and professional body that verifies compliance with a widely recognised code of conduct. Such a certification agency would be in charge of monitoring that civil society organizations endorse the code and certifying that they meet minimum criteria with regard to financial management, accountability, programme delivery and internal governance. To be effective, accreditation would need to be voluntary and subject to minimum eligibility criteria. The ultimate aim would be to guarantee that certified civil society organizations are reliable, efficient and soundly managed.

• International standards: Recent years have witnessed increased pressure for organizations to demonstrate good practice in accountability and management. The result has been a proliferation of standards and guidelines to support and enhance stakeholder dialogue, social and ethical reporting, organizational culture, working conditions, human resources management, planning, accounting, auditing and reporting. ISO standards, the Global Reporting Initiative and the AccountAbility (AA1000) series are three interesting initiatives that apply generally to the corporate sector but which can be useful to civil society as well. What is important to note is that international standards play a key role in supporting an organization's governance by providing common measurement methods for accountability processes.



Despite the phrase becoming increasingly prevalent in development discussions, there does not appear to be a common definition for the term in the literature, nor material addressing the specifics of exit strategies. It seems to have originated in business terminology, moved to the military and has more recently been applied to humanitarian and development-related third-party interventions, specifically.
The dictionary meaning of ‘Exit Strategy’ is a preplanned means of extricating oneself from a situation that is likely to become difficult or unpleasant
WIKIPEDIA says, an exit strategy is a means of leaving one's current situation, either after a predetermined objective has been achieved, or as a strategy to mitigate failure. An organization or individual without an exit strategy may be in a quagmire (a situation that is hard to deal with or get out of : a situation that is full of problems). At worst, an exit strategy will save face; at best, an exit strategy will peg a withdrawal to the achievement of an objective worth more than the cost of continued involvement.
Hence, one hypothesis could be that the generally held perception of an exit strategy in development PROGRAMME includes the agency removing itself from the context where it was working.


A PROGRAMME “exit” refers to the withdrawal of all externally provided PROGRAMME resources from an entire PROGRAMME area. A PROGRAMME exit may refer to the withdrawal of external support from an entire PROGRAMME area, or it may address the withdrawal of support from communities or districts within a PROGRAMME area. It could also refer to the end of a PROGRAMME funding cycle, with an extension through a follow-on extended recovery PROGRAMME or a longer-term development PROGRAMME. And lastly, it may include a combination of withdrawal, PROGRAMME extension or transition.


A PROGRAMME Exit Strategy is a plan describing how the PROGRAMME intends to withdraw its resources while ensuring that achievement of the PROGRAMME goals (relief or development) is not jeopardized and that progress towards these goals will continue.The Exit Strategy may include several scenarios or contingency plans that address unknown factors, such as recurrent droughts or the effects of a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Contingency plans may also include planning for further resources when it may not be possible to exit entirely from PROGRAMME areas.


The goal of an Exit Strategy is to ensure the sustainability of impacts after a PROGRAMME ends. It could also be defined in a broader sense as a PROGRAMME’s ‘sustainability strategy’, which could be accomplished through staggered graduation from specific project areas, simultaneous withdrawal from the entire PROGRAMME area, or transitioning to associated PROGRAMME in selected areas.


Exit strategies, when planned with partners in advance of close-out, ensure better PROGRAMME outcomes and encourage commitment to PROGRAMME sustainability. In addition, good Exit Strategies can help resolve tension that may arise between the withdrawal of assistance and commitment to achieve PROGRAMME outcomes.4 Exit strategies can help clarify and define a sponsor’s role to host countries and local partners as being time limited, reducing the potential for misunderstandings and future dependency. Finally, they are critical to developmental relief PROGRAMME as they inform a PROGRAMME’s sustainability plan or planning for its next phase. Conversely, without Exit Strategies, PROGRAMME transitions and exits are likely to be more haphazard.


The purpose of an exit strategy is not to hasten the exit – exit is not valuable for its own sake – but to improve the chance of sustainable outcomes for the PROGRAMME.


Three basic approaches to Exit Strategies are outlined below. They are: 1) phasing down, 2) phasing out, and 3) phasing over.


Phasing down is a gradual reduction of PROGRAMME activities, utilizing local organizations to sustain PROGRAMME benefits while the original sponsor (or implementing agency or donor) deploys fewer resources.6 Phasing down is often a preliminary stage to phasing over and/or phasing out.


This refers to a sponsor’s withdrawal of involvement in a PROGRAMME without turning it over to another institution for continued implementation. Ideally a PROGRAMME is phased out after permanent or self-sustaining changes are realized, thus eliminating the need for additional external inputs. It is recognized that reaching a level of self-sufficiency through behaviour change and asset creation activities (such as crop diversification and nutrition education) requires a long-term investment, and is unlikely to be realized entirely during the term of a given project. PROGRAMME can be designed from the onset to inculcate knowledge, skills and tangible assets within a fixed time period, and with funding cycles considered in the planning of phase out timing.

NOTE! Funding cycles don’t always coincide with needs. Donor support and funding cycles may impose artificial timelines on PROGRAMME phase-out. For instance, where harvest cycles may be an obvious choice for timing a PROGRAMME phase-out, the donor’s fiscal year and other pre-determined timing requirements for grant closeout may not accommodate this.


The third type of Exit Strategy approach is ‘phasing over’.8 In this case, a sponsor transfers PROGRAMME activities to local institutions or communities. During PROGRAMME design and implementation, emphasis is placed on institutional capacity building so that the services provided can continue through local organizations.
In developing phase over Exit Strategies, there are several questions that must be considered:
• How strong is the community’s sense of ownership/commitment to continue PROGRAMME activities?
• To what extent does the community value PROGRAMME activities? What is the level of demand for the “phased over” services?
• Do community members, groups and service providers have the knowledge and skills needed to implement the PROGRAMME activities?
• Do the local organizations implementing the phased over activities have sufficient institutional and human resource capacity?
• Are the organizations responsible for implementing phased over PROGRAMMEs resilient to shocks and changes in the political and social environment?
• Is there a viable plan to generate the consumable supplies (such as the food or agricultural inputs) that are required to implement activities?


1. Time Limit: Relief, recovery and development PROGRAMMEs all have time limits dictated by funding cycles. Time limits may increase a PROGRAMME’s focus in establishing systems of sustainability or they may impose artificial timing constraints.

2. Achievement of PROGRAMME impacts: Although achieving the intended PROGRAMME impact is often difficult within a given timeframe (and may even create perverse incentives12), indicators of PROGRAMME impact can sometimes be used as exit criteria. Impact indicators can be used to focus PROGRAMME “graduation” efforts on the more self-reliant communities or the effective PROGRAMME components. Lastly, impact indicators can help inform and guide the Exit Strategy time line.

3. Achievement of Benchmarks: Benchmarks are defined as the measurable indicators of identified steps in the graduation process of an Exit Strategy. They are part of the Monitoring and Evaluation planning matrix from the onset. Benchmarks should be linked to the graduation process and to the PROGRAMME components to be phased out or over.


There are several considerations when establishing the time frame for PROGRAMME Exit Strategies. Exit Strategies should be built into the design of PROGRAMME from the BEGINNING. This will encourage the development of interventions that are sustainable, since an Exit Strategy is, in essence, a ‘sustainability plan’.

Establishing an exit timeline that is linked to the PROGRAMME funding cycle, and is clearly communicated to the community is essential. Since PROGRAMME implementation will influence Exit Strategy activities, it is important that the exit plan remains flexible with the expectation that some of the exit criteria and benchmarks may need to be modified during the PROGRAMME cycle.

Further, implementing exit plans in a gradual, phased manner is recommended, as the staggered graduation of project sites can contribute to sustained outcomes by applying lessons learned from earlier sites to those that come later. Lastly, after phase over or PROGRAMME phase out is complete, continued contact with communities will help to support sustainability of outcomes.


1. If the PROGRAMME impact has been sustained, expanded or improved after PROGRAMME end;
2. If the relevant activities are continued in the same or modified format; and
3. If the systems developed continue to function effectively.


The planning and implementing of Exit Strategies is admittedly not an easy task. The relative newness of the subject matter, particularly for an emergency context, provides few lessons learned or better practices to apply. Conversely, Exit Strategies are part of good PROGRAMME planning and thus their basic premise (promoting sustainable PROGRAMME outcomes) and components should not be entirely foreign. With a bit of practice, over time they can be “mainstreamed” into all aspects of PROGRAMME from assessment, planning and design to implementation, monitoring and evaluation. It is hoped that this document will encourage and promote that process among practitioners.

Sunday, 2 February 2014



Till date it is very difficult exercise to analyze the spending of CSR by various firms and private companies and such information is not maintained at government level, even among the top 100 firms by revenue, there are many who don’t report their CSR spends or even declare the social causes they support, that isbecause they are not required to do so by law and no provisions for CSR exists in the Companies Act, 1956 so currently the Ministry does not maintain such details. But all that will change when the new Companies Bill, 2012 (which was already been passed by the Lok Sabha) becomes a law.

The Companies Bill, 2012 incorporates a provision of CSR under Clause 135 which states that every company having
• net worth Rs. 500 crore or more,
• or a turnover of Rs. 1000 crore or more,
• or a net profit of rupees five crore or more
during any financial year, shall constitute a CSR Committee of the Board consisting of three or more Directors, including at least one Independent Director, to recommend activities for discharging corporate social responsibilities in such a manner that the company would spend AT LEAST 2 PERCENT OF ITS AVERAGE NET PROFITS OF THE PREVIOUS THREE YEARS on specified CSR activities.

According to Schedule-VII of Companies Bill, 2013 the following activities can be included by companies in their CSR Policies:-
i. Eradicating extreme hunger and poverty;
ii. Promotion of education;
iii. Promoting gender equality and empowering women;
iv. Reducing child mortality and improving maternal health;
v. combating human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, malaria and other diseases;
vi. ensuring environmental sustainability;
vii. employment enhancing vocational skills;
viii. social business projects;
ix. contribution to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund or any other fund set by the Central Government or the State Governments for socio-economic development and relief and funds for the welfare of the Scheduled Caste, the Scheduled Tribes, other backward classes, minorities and women; and
x. such other matters as may be prescribed.

The Companies Bill, 2013, Clause 135 also provides for constitution of a CSR Committee of the Board. The CSR Committee is required to;
a. Formulate and recommend to the Board, a CSR Policy which shall indicate the activities to be undertaken by the company as specified in Schedule VII;
b. Recommend the amount of expenditure to be incurred on the activities referred to in clause (a); and
c. Monitor the Corporate Social Responsibility Policy of the company from time to time.
d. The format for disclosure of CSR policy and the activities therein as part of Board’s report will be prescribed in the rules once the Bill is enacted.

The Compliance Period of such mandatory spending on CSR will commence on 1st April, 2014. And, it is estimated that 22,000 crores of rupees will be spent by such companies in the next financial year (2014-15). Hence, it is time to gear up for partnering with CSR wings of the corporate for your chosen area of activity from among the list provided above.