Friday, 23 May 2014

Concept of Family and Marriage

Family is considered the bastion of human civilization. It
forms an essential part of human evolution, without which
existence of societies would have not been possible in the
present formtoday. Philosophers and social scientists have
noted that society is a structure made up of families and
characteristics of a given society can be studied by looking
at the pattern, functioning and structure of family. One of
the primary reasons for evolution of the institution of family
is to provide protection and nurturance to infant and
children who are perhaps the most helpless creatures at
the time of birth.
The family as a social institution is formally developed in
all societies. It is taken as the primary unit of socialization.
It forms the considerable part of an individual’s identity.
It shapes the personality of itsmembers especially children
and inculcates skills to deal with social environment. It
provides safety, security, love and affection to itsmembers.
The institution of family is a universal phenomenon,
though with varying patterns, types, composition and
functions. Over the years societies, globally, have witnessed
change in family patterns. The recent phenomena of
globalization and consumerism have created new and
diverse forms of family and household. There is emergence
of a gradual trend from extended families to nuclear
families due to growing urbanization and industrialization.
We have greater proportion of single parent families than
ever before. The family system is taking newer forms to
adapt to the growing demands of changing social
situations. Before going into the details of concept,
composition and typology of families, let us take a look at
another related and quite significant social institution —
marriage — that is taken as the beginning of a family life
Marriage between a man and a woman is considered as
the basis of formation of family from time immemorial.
With the birth of a child a family is considered fully
constituted. Nature has given the capability to reproduce
asexually to only a few organisms like amoebae and most
species including homosapions (humans) reproduce
sexually.Marriage is the social sanction to establish sexual
relations with spouse and reproduce tomaintain continuity
of the family lineage and, in turn, society.
Thus, marriage is a social sanction for procreation, which
is an important function of family. There are many rituals
and ceremonies associated with marriage that differ from
religion to religion and culture to culture. It may be noted
that marriage as a social contract puts many roles and
responsibilities in front of the couple, which in larger
context are controlled by the patriarchal or matriarchal
social structures.Marriage is not an integral part of human
nature, but it is a man made custom or institution which
was present even in pre-historic times. It is not a natural
relationship but an obligation between a man and a
woman. With the advancement of civilization, marriage
became a social function with religious and legal sanctions.
Therefore,marriage is a systemin which human sexuality
is socialized. This hasmade social life possible, by creating
a base for smaller units of society — the family. Human
beings derive a lot fromtheir families and are socialized to
perform various roles in the larger social environment. To
begin a family life, a woman and a man marry each other.
The purpose of marriage ceremonies in any society is to
let the community and society know about the alliance
and protect it. Family and marriage, as social institutions
are meant to fulfill many needs of the human being like
providing security, affection, love, care, belongingness,
identity and worth.
Family: Meaning and Functions
Let us look at some of the characteristic features of ‘family’.
The family is not merely a biological group; it is primarily
a social institution. Its members are governed by rules
and regulations. The behaviour of its members is not
motivated by instincts but by customs, which prescribe
the standards of family behaviour.
The family is composed of persons united by ties of
marriage, blood or adoption. The bond between husband
and wife is that of marriage and the relationship between
parents and children is generally that of blood, though
sometimes of adoption.
The members of a family typically live together under one
roof and constitute a single household. If they stay apart
they consider the household their ‘home’. The definition
of a household is a group of persons residing in the same
place and constituting a single housekeeping unit.
The family is composed of persons who interact and
communicate with each other in their social roles such as
husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter,
brother and sister. The roles are defined by social
expectations but in each family they are powerfully
reinforced by feelings arising out of experiences within the
family itself and fromone’s parental family. It is considered
the basic unit of society, to meet the needs of individuals
and those of other societal institutions.
The family maintains a common culture. It is derived
mainly fromthe general culture, but each family has some
distinctive features.
Types of family: families may be classified based on
descent, location of residence and authority. On the basis
of descent, families are classified as patrilineal and
matrilineal. The place of residence of couple aftermarriage
— either with or near the husband’s or the wife’s parents
— classifies families as patrilocal or matrilocal. In neolocal
families, husband and wife live separately fromtheir
respective families and start their ‘new’ household unit. A
more significant classification is the patriarchal or
matriarchal family. In the patriarchal family the members
are under the authority of the father and trace descent
through him. In matriarchal family, members of the
extended family live together under the authority of the
mother and trace descent through the mother.
The familymay have different configurations like conjugal
nuclear, joint, which are commonly called ‘normative’
family patterns. The conjugal family denotes the husbandwife
unit. The nuclear family is defined as the husband
and wife with unmarried children. The joint family includes
three generations living together — husband, wife with
married children, their spouse, unmarried children,
grandparents, etc.
It may be noted that with time the definition of family also
kept on changing. Stated otherwise, family as an institution
has changed itself in terms of typology, composition, roles
and functions. In ancient times, only joint family groups
would qualify to be called as ‘family’ and then with forces
of social change like urbanization, industrialization, joint
family groups gave way to nuclear family system. At present
various ‘alternate’ family groups (other than normative
family patterns) are also emerging with different roles and
functions. These may be single parent families, women
headed families, childless families, adoptive families, dual
earner families, to mention a few. In the light of changing
structure and functions of the families, the United Nations
in 1994, defines this social institution as —
The family may be broadly perceived as a unit of two or
more persons united by the ties of marriage, blood,
adoption or consensual unions. Thus, ‘consensual unions’
also have been included to fit in all emerging alternate
family forms like single parent families, adoptive families,
only grandparent-grandchild family, live-in relationships,
same sex families along with various normative family
Thus, family is a highly dynamic concept. As a social
institution, family has consisted of more or less formal
rules and regulations, organized around the fulfillment of
societal needs. It has historically been an integral part of
the ethnic community, which has promoted patriarchy in
the family.
Marriage: Meaning and Purpose
Marriage may be defined as a socially sanctioned union of
man with woman to perform the roles of husband and
wife. The term marriage has different meanings and
connotations for different people. To some, marriage is a
relationship between man and woman for propagation of
human species. Some people take it as license for sex. Yet
another group considersmarriage as companionship, love
and intimacy.
Marriage is development of one of the most unique and
versatile relationships of human life. It offers an
opportunity for life-long companionship, belongingness
and support. It fulfills need for sex, intimacy, love and
affection. From society’s perspective, it is division of roles
and responsibilities for procreation and socialization of
children and running a family.
Indian views on marriage have all the more dimensions.
Marriage is a sacrament, with religious and moral
obligations on one hand and social and economic on the
other. Hindu concept of marriage is that it is a sanskar or
dharma — a holy union of the two souls and not simply of
two bodies. It is considered an indissoluble bond that could
be broken only by death. Marriage has been taken as a
ceremonial gift of the bride by her father, or other
appropriate relative, to the bride groom in order that both
may together fulfill their duties which is necessary for
human existence. Further, Islam says that marriage is an
institution ordained for the protection of the society and
in order that human beings may guard themselves from
foulness and unchastity. In Islam, marriage is more often
a civil contract, the objectives of which are the promotion
of normal family life and the legalization of children. Among
Christians,marriage has been viewed as a voluntary union
for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of
others, thus, stressing on monogamy.
Marriage has legal aspects also. Legal sanction ofmarriage
is based on prevailing social norms and customs. It varies
from one society to another. In India, legal minimum age
for marriage is 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys.
Thus, marriage, according to religious and sociological
literature, is a union of two persons of different sexes to
life long reciprocal possession of their sexual qualities,
which aims at fulfilling the individual’s biological,
emotional, social and spiritual needs.Most oftenmarriage
as a bond begins with accomplishment of different rituals
and ceremonies.
Some practical purposes or utilitarian aspects ofmarriage
may well be delineated. It ensures security to women who
have to undergo long periods of pregnancy and to the
newborn offspring. It keeps family roles and functions
intact. It ensures stability to society and simplifies blood
According to Koos, a sociologist, marriage is a dividing
line between the family of orientation and family of
procreation in terms of the nature of roles one performs in
the two families. The roles in the family of orientation vary
in infancy, childhood and adolescence and carry no
responsibilities and obligations. However, the roles one
performs in the family of procreation after marriage as a
husband/wife, a father/mother, a bread-earner, a
grandfather/grandmother, a retired person, etc., have
different expectations and obligations.
In India, marriages are usually classified as: marriage by
free choice of the partners or love marriage, arranged
marriage and forced/arranged marriage. They can further
be classified asmonogamous or polygamous; civil, religious
or customary.
Based on the number of partners,marriage may be mainly
categorized into
two— monogamy and polygamy. Monogamy is marriage
between one man and one woman. This form has high
social, legal and religious appreciation. Polygamy, which
means plurality of husband/wife, includes polygyny,
polyandry, Levirate and Sorrorate. Polygyny is marrying
more than one female. Religious and civic sets of rules
and laws have sanctioned conditioned polygamous
marriages like wife not being able to produce sons,
maladjusted nature of wife, etc. Polyandry is a marriage
in which one woman marries more than one man. This is
more common practice among Todas and Kotas of Nilgiris
in South India. Polyandrymay be fraternal or non-fraternal.
In fraternal polyandry, the husbands are all brothers or
cousins fromthe father’s side. In the case of non-fraternal
polyandry, they are not related as seen among Nairs of
Kerala. Levirate is a formof polygamousmarriage in which
man marries wife of late elder brother or even during the
lifetime of elder brother. This form has been seen among
the Ahirs of Haryana, Jats and Gujars and some other
castes in Uttar Pradesh. In Sorrorate form of marriage,
wives of a man are invariably the sisters. It is generally
observed among Nagas, Gonds and Baigas of India. This
form is also practiced when wife is unable to procreate or
Family and Marriage: Implications for Social
Work Professionals
Family has a historical-idealistic connotation. It is
visualized as a link between continuity and change. It is a
major source of nurturance, emotional bonding and
socialization. It provides security and care to its members,
socializes the child from a physical being to social being
and meets the basic and developmental needs of family
members. It has the major potential to provide stability
and support when there are problems from the
Family in India is often understood as an ideal homogenous
unit with strong coping mechanisms. However, it is
important to recognize that theremay be inherent problems
within the family. Moreover, families in a large and
culturally diverse country like India, have plurality of forms
that vary with class, ethnicity and individual choices.
Sociologists and social scientists, of late, have begun to
question romanticizing of family as merely an idealistic,
universal, everlasting source of nurturance, emotional
bonding and support. In juxtaposition, family may also be
a source of inequality, exploitation and violence. There
may be inherent and perpetual discriminations and
exploitation against some of the family members. Often
democratic values, equality and equity are not found
consistently with most families.
In the patriarchal structure of the family, roles and
responsibilities and control and distribution of resources
are strictly determined by age and gender. Control over
resources and assumptions of superiority give the man
the authority to make decisions about his dependents,
which would mainly include women and children.
Subordination of women and thereby gender
discrimination has remained an integral reality of most
family practices — child marriage, dowry demands, sati,
celebration of a birth of a boy child, female foeticide,
infanticide, father as a natural guardian and so on.
Individuals and families who deviate fromthe ethnic norms
of their community often face ostracism.
Patriarchy generally leads to patriliny and patrilocality,
which separate the women from their natal family home
after marriage. Women often do not have the title to the
matrimonial home in which she concentrates all her time
and energy. In case of death of her husband or desertion
or divorce, she is often rendered destitute as she neither
has a home in her family ofmarriage nor in her natal family,
which has given her away.
Even in matrilineal and matrilocal cultures, patriarchy
seems to be prevalent in the form of power held by the
brother and not by the woman herself.
The institution of marriage and the event of child bearing
are considered so essential for family life, that couple
staying together without marriage, the single parent
families are not accepted as complete or normal families.
Thus, the family has not been a cradle for nurturing
democratic values. In fact, the child gets socialized into
the concepts of inequality by gender and age in the name
of familism. Even women ingest the patriarchal values to
be timid, submissive, docile, and dependent since early
Besides the familymembers, patriarchy is also internalized
by the community, the society and the state. It, therefore,
affects all the spheres of our life and not just the family
life. The need for a democratic family structure is a major
challenge for the families and not just for the women.
For social work professionals, there is a need to look at
these institutions of family and marriage not only in
idealistic terms, but critically evaluate their roles, functions
in the context of democratic values and human rights
perspective. The social workers should realize that family
and marriage have great potential for ensuring well-being
of individual members. At the same time, they may
perpetuate discrimination and oppression for some family
Social work professionals should accept the diversity of
forms, composition and types of family thereby avoiding
biases and discriminations that may arise on account of
rigid beliefs about ‘family’. They may, first of all, aim at a
family for every individual, unless an adult leaves it by
choice. Second, they may aim at a democratic family with
scope for the development of individual members and
enriched family relationships. Third, they need a
democratic environment for the family with scope for the
development of the families with harmonious family
ecology. Achievement of these goals would strengthen the
family unit and prevent exploitation, disintegration and
destitution of families and their members.
Family Assessment and Intervention
It is an undisputed assumption that dysfunctional or
maladjusted family processes adversely affect mental
health and social functioning of individuals. Social work
professionals are,more often than not, required to interact
with the family during their interventions for helping the
clients to resolve conflicts, be it case work, group situation
or other methods of social work practice as family is
universally present and assessment as well as intervention
are hardly complete without involvement of clients’ family.
There have been several models of studying family but the
most widely used one is ‘system’s approach’.
The general System paradigm is the most popular and
important theoretical framework that provides a
comprehensive structure for understanding functioning
of the family. According to Systems Theory, family is a
system, comprised of various sub-systems, which basically,
are the dyads (husband-wife, parent-child, siblings,
grandparent-grandchild). Family is also a part of larger
systemthat is social environment and includes work place,
health care and education system, ethnic community, legal
system, geographicalecology, political system, etc. It is
assumed that any change in one part of the system has
effects on other sub-systems or systems. This is applicable
both within the family and with respect to outside
The following schema represents the conceptual framework
for family as a social system. It depicts that family is a
dynamic system and interacts with other systems in the
social environment such as economic system, political
system, ethnic community, neighbourhood, etc. The dotted
lines represent that systems are not closed rather
information can pass through the semi-permeable
membrane of the system. It may be noted that family in
the social environment do not passively receive
information, rather its presence may influence other
systems also.

Functions of Social Institutions

1) Social institutions regulate individual behaviour.
Individuals by nature have unlimited needs which is
impossible to fulfill. Therefore society needs to control
the needs of the individual, which is done by social
Social institutions channels human energies and
creativity to social productive channels. Individual
have lots of energy and creativity if left uncontrolled
can lead to destructive tendencies. Religion, political
institutions see that these energies are made useful
to society.
2) Social institutions fulfill human need by Production
and Distribution of Goods and Services. Economic
institutions fulfill physiological needs and social
institutions fulfill social needs and esteem. For
example family fulfills the need for sex and parenthood.
3) A social institution makes individual behaviour
predictable. In society there are innumerable social
interactions taking place. Institutions reduce the
uncertainty in these interaction and institutions help
us predict the behaviour of others in these
circumstances. For example, a couple going to marry
will know their roles and responsibilities. They will
know what to expect from others. Once behaviour is
predictable other can orient their behaviour towards
achieving the common goals. If they deviate they will
have to suffer negative sanctions and face the
4) Social institution control and regulates deviant
behaviour. Once it is recognized that a particular way
of doings are to be followed that individuals who break
this agreement will be punished which will restrain
him from committing the error again and also be a
deterrent to others fromcommitting the same mistake.
Since social institutions perform crucial functions, their
malfunctioning can result in breakdown in the society as
a whole.

Globalization, Liberalisation and Privatisation in India


The term globalization can be used in different contexts. The general usages of the term Globalization can be as follows:
i. Interactions and interdependence among countries.
ii. Integration of world economy.
iii. Deterritorisation.
By synthesising all the above views Globalization can be broadly defined as follows:
It refers to a process whereby there are social, cultural, technological exchanges across the border.
The term Globalization was first coined in 1980s. But even before this there were interactions among nations. But in the modern days Globalization has touched all spheres of life such as economy, education. Technology, cultural phenomenon, social aspects etc. The term “global village” is also frequently used to highlight the significance of globalization. This term signifies that revolution in electronic communication would unite the world.
Undoubtedly, it can be accepted that globalization is not only the present trend but also future world order.

Effect of Globalization on India:

Globalization has its impact on India which is a developing country. The impact of globalization can be analysed as follows:

1. Access to Technology:

Globalization has drastically, improved the access to technology. Internet facility has enabled India to gain access to knowledge and services from around the world. Use of Mobile telephone has revolution used communication with other countries.

2. Growth of international trade:

Tariff barriers have been removed which has resulted in the growth of trade among nations. Global trade has been facilitated by GATT, WTO etc.

3. Increase in production:

Globalization has resulted in increase in the production of a variety of goods. MNCs have established manufacturing plants all over the world.

4. Employment opportunities:

Establishment of MNCs have resulted in the increase of employment opportunities.

5. Free flow of foreign capital:

Globalization has encouraged free flow of capital which has improved the economy of developing countries to some extent. It has increased the capital formation.

Negative effect of globalization:

Globalization is not free from negative effects. They can be summed up as follows:

1. Inequalities within countries:

Globalisation has increased inequalities among the countries. Some of the policies of Globalization (liberalisation, WTO policies etc.) are more beneficial to developed countries. The countries which have adopted the free trade agenda have become highly successful. E.g.: China is a classic example of success of globalization. But a country like India is not able to overcome the problem.

2. Financial Instability:

As a consequence of globalization there is free flow of foreign capital poured into developing countries. But the economy is subject to constant fluctuations. On account of variations in the flow of foreign capital.

3. Impact on workers:

Globalization has opened up employment opportunities. But there is no job security for employees. The nature of work has created new pressures on workers. Workers are not permitted to organise trade unions.

4. Impact on farmers:

Indian farmers are facing a lot of threat from global markets. They are facing a serious competition from powerful agricultural industries quite often cheaply produced agro products in developed countries are being dumped into India.

5. Impact on Environment:

Globalization has led to 50% rise in the volume of world trade. Mass movement of goods across the world has resulted in gas emission. Some of the projects financed by World Bank are potentially devastating to ecological balance. E.g.: Extensive import or export of meat.

6. Domination by MNCs:

MNCs are the driving force behind globalization. They are in a position to dictate powers. Multinational companies are emerging as growing corporate power. They are exploiting the cheap labour and natural resources of the host countries.
7. Threat to national sovereignty:
Globalizations results in shift of economic power from independent countries to international organisations, like WTO United Nations etc. The sovereignty of the elected governments are naturally undermined, as the policies are formulated in favour of globalization. Thus globalization has its own positive and negative consequences. According to Peter F Drucker Globalization for better or worse has changed the way the world does business. It is unstoppable. Thus Globalization is inevitable, but India should acquire global competitiveness in all fields.


It is an immediate effect of globalization. Liberalisation is commonly known as free trade. It implies removal of restrictions and barriers to free trade. India has taken many efforts for liberalisation which are as follows:
New economic policy 1991.
Objectives of the new economic policy.
i. To achieve higher economic growth rate.
ii. To reduce inflation
iii. To rebuild foreign exchange reserves.


Foreign exchange Regulation Act 1973 was repealed and Foreign exchange Management Act was passed. The enactment has incorporated clauses which have facilitated easy entry of MNCs.
i. Joint ventures with foreign companies. E.g.: TVS Suzuki.
ii. Reduction of import tariffs.
iii. Removal of export subsidies.
iv. Full convertibility of Rupee on current account.
v. Encouraging foreign direct investments.
The effect of liberalisation is that the companies of developing countries are facing a tough competition from powerful corporations of developed countries.
The local communities are exploited by multinational companies on account of removal of regulations governing the activities of MNCs.


In the event of globalization privatisation has become an order of the day. Privatisation can be defined as the transfer of ownership and control of public sector units to private individuals or companies. It has become inevitable as a result of structural adjustment programmes imposed by IMF.

Objectives of Privatisation:

To strengthen the private sectors.
Government to concentrate on areas like education and infrastructure.
In the event of globalization the government felt that increasing inefficiency on the part of public sectors would not help in achieving global standards. Hence a decision was taken to privatise the Public Sectors.

Causes of Inefficiency of Public Sectors:

i. Bureaucratic administration
ii. Out dated Technology
iii. Corruption
iv. Lack of accountability.
v. Domination of trade unions
vi. Political interference.
vii. Lack of proper marketing activities.
Privatisation has its own advantages and disadvantages Viz:


i. Efficiency
ii. Absence of political interference
iii. Quality service.
iv. Systematic marketing
v. Use of modern Technology
vi. Accountability
vii. Creation of competitive environment.
viii. Innovations
ix. Research and development
x. Optimum utilisation of resources
xi. Infra structure.
However, privatisation suffers from the following defects.
i. Exploitation of labour.
ii. Abuse of powers by executives.
iii. Unequal distribution of wealth and income.
iv. Lack of job security for employees.
Privatisation has become inevitable in the present scenario. But some control should be exercised by the government over private sectors.

Changes across Euro, Third World, USA and Their Impact on India:

Changes across Euro and USA:

Significant changes have taken place across Euro and USA on account of globalization, particularly in the field of international business politics etc. Such changes have given rise to change in cultural and social aspects as well.
The economy of European countries and US are getting integrated with the global economy. Different arrangements have been made in this regard which are as follows:
1. Free Trade Area:
It is an agreement among a group of countries to abolish all trade restrictions and barriers, in carrying out international trade.
2. Customs Union:
The member countries abolish all the restrictions and barriers and adopt a uniform commercial policy.
3. European Economic Community:
It was initially formed by six countries viz: France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. It came into existence on 1.1.1958. How EEC has 15 members. In order to become a member of EEC, a country must be European country and it must be democratic.
Activities of EEC:
i. Elimination of custom duties and quantity restrictions on export and import of goods.
ii. Devising a common agricultural policy.
iii. Devising a common transport policy.
iv. To control disequilibrium in balance of payments.
v. Development of a common commercial policy.
4. North American Free Trade Agreement:
i. It came into being in 1994 Developed countries like US, Canada and a developing country Mexico became the members.

Objectives and Activities of NAFTA:

i. Removing barriers among the member countries to facilitate free trade.
ii. To enhance Industrial development.
iii. To enhance competition.
iv. To improve Political relationship among member countries.
v. To develop industries in Mexico. the international market.

European Free Trade Association:

It was formed in 1959. The member countries are: Austria, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland and Great Britain.

Objectives of EFTA

i. To eliminate trade barriers.
ii. To remove tariffs.
iii. To encourage free trade.
iv. To enhance economic development of member countries.

Changes in the Third World:

The concept of Third World does not have much significance in the present scenario. This term was popular prior to the disintegration of Soviet Union. USA and USSR were considered as super powers and the countries in the world were divided in supporting them. The countries which did not have an alliance with both the countries were considered as Third World countries. But with the disintegration of USSR the concept of Third World has almost disappeared. However changes in Asian countries and other countries (other than Europe and USA) have affected India. Such changes can be discussed as follows:

Trade blocks in Asia:

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
It came into being in 1983 countries like India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Maldives and Sri Lanka adopted a declaration on SAARC.

Objectives of SAARC:

i. To promote economic social and cultural development among member countries.
ii. To improve the life of people among member countries.
iii. To enhance cooperation with other developing economies.
iv. To liberalise trade among member countries.
v. To promote economic cooperation among member countries.

Changes in Asian Countries:

Chinese Market:

China has introduced many economic reforms. It started privatisation in 1984. China has formed special economic Zones. It has attracted heavy foreign investments. It has also formed economic and Technical Development Zones in towns and cities. These zones are free zones which allow quick business operations.

Japanese Market:

There is a rapid growth in Japan during the past Fifty years. Japanese maintained a close link with ministry of international trade and investment. The Strategies of Japanese-corporate sector was directed by ministry of international trade.

Impact on India:

Changes across Euro, USA and Third World has its own impact on India which can be summarised as follows:
i. India’s economic dependence on other countries has significantly increased.
ii. Extensive opportunities in the field of information technology.
iii. Extensive opportunities for India’s Telecom sector.
iv. Strategic alliances. Joint ventures, mergers have become the order of the day.
v. Extensive research and development.
vi. Bilateral treaties to promote free trade.
vii. Membership of WTO.
viii. Amending the domestic laws to suit the liberalised economy. E.g.: FEMA. Amendment of Patent Act
ix. Active participation in global politics.
x. Improvement in Productivity.
On the whole it can be concluded that changes across Euro, USA and other countries have significantly changed the Indian economy. India has realised that its business can’t survive without focusing on changes in other countries. Indian economy has become a major economy of the world and a significant trading partner. In the new era, India is looking at the potentials of the new products.

Management Perspective:

Globalization has led to the practice of management across culture. Modern business organisations have adopted Global management practices. Efforts are being made by India to understand Japanese, Chinese style of management. Issues in Motivation, communication across culture has gained significance. Every functional area of management is being studied with a global perspective. E.g.: International HRM, International Financial management, International marketing etc.

Sunday, 18 May 2014

social justice

Social justice means an equal and fair opportunity for everyone to live in just conditions of the society. It envisages rights regarding social, economic and political matters for the all over development of a person to live a healthy social life.
Only legal justice saves a person from arbitrariness of course, but it is not enough for positive and creative role in welfare of human being. For these ends. Even courts strive to provide social justice to the needy classes.
Reservation of seats for women in parliament is a much hotly debated question for quite a long time- whether it will really serve any purpose or not-if reservation is given to women will they be able to perform the responsible duty of a legislator or will they occupy those honorable limited seats and intelligent and deserving candidates have to remain out of parliament? Moreover, will they be able to perform their duties independently or work just as "rubber-stamps" in the hands If their relatives?
All these questions being discussed hotly whenever the topic is raised. But, today, internationally, women are getting prestigious positions They are achieving amazing successes in various fields which were hardly expected from woman. They have performed as well as men almost all fields now-a-days. These suggest that if they are provided. With enough opportunities, they will perform well even in parliament.
Some reasons given in favour are:
i. They are ambitious enough to do well.
ii. They are less politicised and so much neutral to the' reality.
iii. They are more honest.
iv. They are caring and kind by nature and this can make them work sensitively to solve the problems in society
v. They are hard working and responsible.
All these, besides many more, are the reasons why woman reservation in parliament will prove a good step.
However, their condition in today's society is not satisfactory Literacy, awareness and social activity is not been among then in enough proportion But, reservation will bring out potential leader in them and will make them aware of their rights and powers. This will read to the upliftment of women and through them families, villages, towns and the nation at last.
Thus, reservation for women will be a good step in direction of achieving social-justice.

social justice in India

The term "social justice" implies several sound and eminently desirable concepts enunciated for the good of society in general, and of course it covers fair play for every section, especially the weaker groups in the popu­lation.
This seems unexceptionable and no one, however prejudiced or nar­row minded, would object to the promotion of this ideal. And yet the actions of countless people in this country, day after day, believe their words.
The reckless flouting of the concept of social justice, and the denial of equal opportunities in life which this postulates, all reflect a tendency that is anti-national and marks totally unfair and unjustified behavior.
In this defiance of the basic laws of human justice, the educated intelligent people are as guilty as their ignorant, unlettered compatriots in the countryside.
We may start with certain provisions of the Constitution, which is the fundamental law of the land. The preamble itself says: "We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist and democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens—Justice, social, economic and political...." Clearly, social justice in all its forms and to all citizens was regarded as fundamental to the set-up which our founding fathers prescribed for the country; it is mentioned on top of the other equally sound concepts, and yet this very concept is being violated by countless people with amazing impunity, without fear.
In fact, many would say that it is absurd to talk of social justice in this country, because almost all the traditional and prevalent systems are loaded against social and economic justice. The Preamble provides for "equality of status and of opportunity...." In reality, neither equality of status nor of opportunity is assured.
There are distinct classes in society which stick to their privileges and refuse to share their riches and assets with others, even while crores of people live in misery and perpetually groan under the burden of unfair practices, unjust policies and gross inequalities.
The State, according to Article 15(1) of the Constitution, "shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, and place of birth or any of them." The State, officially, indeed does not differentiate between man and man on any of these grounds, but at the same time the government and the administrative machinery have proved incapable of enforcing this provision.
How else are we to explain the countless cases of social and economic injustice, the increasing inequalities in most spheres of human activity and the endless discrimination against the weaker sections of society, especially Harijans and members of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes? The harassment and the cruelties inflicted on them by landlords in the villages are common knowledge.
The lands granted to them have in many cases been grabbed by greedy people; and the equal rights guaranteed to them under the laws of the land are denied to them by selfish people.
The pity is that the law and order machinery (the police) generally favors the richer classes and other oppressors. No one actively takes up the case of the down-trodden people, despite the high-sounding laws of the land and the impressive proclamations issued by the President of India and his ministers.
The reservations in government services, assured to the weaker sections of society, have not benefited the really needy people, because there is virtually no end to impostors who wangle documents, certificates, the fa­cilities and grants given by the government.
The Benami transactions in land, the deceptions and the endless frauds in allotment of surplus land, houses, plots, etc., all amount to denial of economic justice to lakhs of people urgently in need of relief. The government passes laws for promoting social justice in various fields, but these are not strictly enforced; thus the government may also be held guilty. It bows to various pressures.
Chapter III of the Constitution, entitled "Fundamental Rights", enumerates a series of rights which all Indian citizens are supposed to enjoy, and yet the number of people who are able to enjoy these rights in practice is much less than those who are denied their exercise. Their life continues to be one long, tragic and heart-breaking story of deprivation and sufferings through official and public apathy.
Their colossal poverty is a permanent handicap which prevents them from seeking redress from the courts, for grave wrongs done to them month after month by men in privileged positions, and also those who are protected by the men in power; ministers and legislators, in effect their patrons. In other words, they are all partners in the guilt and deserve to be hauled up for violating the Constitution and many other social reform laws passed by the Parliament.
Article 23 of the Constitution specifically prohibits traffic in human beings, "begar" and other similar forms of forced labour, and any contravention of this provision, it is stated, shall be an offence punishable in ac­cordance with law. But how many people guilty of such defiance have beer, caught and punished? Economic exploitation of labour continues with a vengeance—by capitalists, unscrupulous employers, landlords and others, including senior government officials sand yet no one bothers. There is mere talk and promise, but no concrete action to redress injustices.
Corruption itself is a form of exploitation, because people holding key positions extort money in the shape of bribes, gifts and services, even for rendering simple services which are their duty. This process makes total nonsense of "equality of opportunity" guaranteed under the Constitution. Only those who have money can give bribes and grease the palms of greedy people.
The rest have to suffer through the bureaucratic ways, especially red tape, which in itself involves injustices to the countless people whose petitions or applications are kept pending for months, sometimes years. And yet, does anyone in this country suffer for causing harassment and frustration to these people through red tape?
Wherever we may go, and whichever sphere we might study, we shall come across numerous cases where justice has been continuously denied to innocent citizens. Are all those who cause such denial not morally and legal guilty, and are they not punishable under the law? And yet, even the idea of hauling up highly placed offenders does not occur to the powers that be. The hapless citizen, of course, suffers in silence. The number of people in India who are suffering in silence must be legion. Almost the entire nation is suffering in silence.
There is no discipline, and there are hardly any morals. The absences of these vital traits of character signify the absence of social and economic justice. The argument that the police do not have their heart in the job, because of the relatively low salaries they are paid and the fact that their own senior officials do not assert themselves is hardly convincing. There is no sign of justice or fair play in any sphere of activity. It is injustice and corruption on all over.
Justice is becoming scarcer with every passing year. The coming years hold little promise of restoring social injustice in the country.

Social Work Practice in Corrections

Few fields of practice are more suited to the skills of a social worker than that of corrections, a field that is both challenging and rewarding.

The term “corrections” refers to the system response to individuals (women, men, and young persons of both sexes) who have come into conflict with the law and have been convicted of a crime. Individuals convicted of crimes may serve their sentences in correctional institutions or under supervision in the community. In Canada, sentences of two years less a day are administered by the provincial and territorial correctional systems, while sentences of two years or more and long-term supervision orders are administered by the federal correctional system. The correctional system is one component of the larger criminal justice system and is dedicated to improving public safety by helping offenders to become law-abiding citizens, while exercising secure and humane control.

Social workers believe that community safety can be best achieved in a system that places emphasis on individual accountability through personal development and growth, as well as equal emphasis on accountability of the system. Social workers within corrections have to continually balance the needs and interests of the individual in conflict with the law, the mandate and focus of the various correctional agencies and organizations, the perspective of victims, and obligations to the community, with an overriding emphasis on both public and personal safety.

A social work ideal is to value the dignity and intrinsic worth of every individual and to be respectful of diversity, while upholding an individual’s right to self-determination. Maintaining this ideal can prove challenging within the field of corrections, which involves working with individuals who have caused harm. Social workers believe that all individuals have the capacity for self-improvement and that this can be facilitated within correctional systems.

The skills that social workers bring to the field of corrections are increasingly in demand due to the greater focus on the mental and physical health care needs of individuals in conflict with the law. The “person-in-environment” perspective that guides social work interventions, which considers external influences, is unique and invaluable given that other professions in corrections tend to focus primarily on the “individual”.

A social worker’s scope of practice within corrections is highly dynamic and includes intense workloads, management of sensitive information, participation on interdisciplinary teams, and building community partnerships, with opportunities to contribute to the advancement of evidence-based best practices.

Social work positions within corrections encompass a wide range of skills and specialized services, including discharge planning, case management, program delivery, individual/family/group counselling, crisis intervention, negotiation and mediation, teaching, community capacity building, and advocacy (individual and systemic). There is a tendency for social workers within the field of corrections to set priorities for services to sub-populations that require specialized care and consideration, including persons with physical or mental health challenges, developmental disabilities, or other cognitive impairments, seniors, youth, women, Aboriginal peoples, and offenders convicted of sexual or violent offences. Service delivery has to consider the increasingly adversarial, challenging, and litigious nature of the field of corrections. Services are often delivered in autonomous and isolated settings, without access to practice-specific leadership.

Many employment opportunities exist for social workers within corrections, and these include: custodial assignments; residential counsellors; case management, probation, parole, and program officers; clinical positions; research and policy development; staff training and recruitment; employee support networks (for example, Employee Assistance Programs and Critical Incident Stress Management teams); administration and management.

Most social workers employed within corrections have diverse levels of academic training and are not necessarily classified in “social work” positions. While the minimum requirement for employment in a social work position is a Bachelor of Social Work degree, a Master of Social Work degree is considered a strong asset. Registration with a provincial/territorial body is also required to ensure accountability to Standards of Practice and a Code of Ethics.

Social pathology

Social pathology includes: substance abuse, violence, abuses of women and children, crime, terrorism, corruption, criminality, discrimination, isolation, stigmatisation and human rights violations. "Many contemporary social problems are global in nature and are shared by many countries." 
"Violence against women is a public health concern in all countries. An estimated 20% to 50% of women have suffered domestic violence. Surveys in many countries reveal that 10% to 15% of women report that they are forced to have sex with their intimate partner. The high prevalence of sexual violence to which women of all ages are exposed, with the consequent high rate of post-traumatic stress disorder, explains why women are most affected by this disorder."
Social pathologies "often lead to a flood of social, economic and psychological problems that undermine well-being." and therefore need to be considered in developing a mental health policy that promotes population mental health well-being and addresses issues that contribute to mental illness.