Wednesday, 16 April 2014

Laws related to Family

Family is defined as a group of persons of both sexes, related by marriage, blood or adoption performing roles based on age, sex 7 relationship. Family generally consists of people living together having Blood relationship, their mentality may be same or different but they share same kitchen.

Laws  related to FamilyWith the change of time the principles & ethics of every family has change. Today the family problems are extended in such a manner that the existing rules are quite looking limited to provide services to the family. So there have much laws has been implemented
for the betterment of the family. They are:
  • Legislative Provisions
  • Constitutional Provisions
  • Special Plan & Policies relating to family
Legislative Provisions
  1. Indian Succession Act – 1925
  2. Special Marriage Act – 1954
  3. Hindu Marriage Act – 1955
  4. Hindu Succession Act – 1956
  5. EPF Act – 1957
  6. Dowry prohibition Act – 1961
  7. Maternity Benefit Act – 1961
  8. MTP Act - 1971
  9. GPF Act – 1987
  10. PNDT Act - 1994
  11. Old Age Pension Scheme – 1995
Constitutional Provisions
Aricle 14 – Equality before Law
Aricle 15 (3) – A State should make Special Provisions in favour of Women & Children
Aricle 16 – Equality of opportunity relating to employment
Aricle 21 – Right to life & personal liberty of every individual
Aricle 39 – Both man & woman equally have the right to an adequate means of livelihood
Aricle 42 – State shall make provisions for just & human conditions of work & maternity relief
Aricle 45 – Free & compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years
Aricle 47 – Raise the level of nutrition & standard of living of its people & the improvement of Public Health
Aricle 48 – State shall endeavour to organise agriculture & animal husbandry on modern scientific lines
Aricle 243 – Not less than one-third of the total number of offices of chairpersons in the Panchayat should be reserved for women

Special Plan & Policies relating to family
1. National Population Policy – 2000
2. Health & Family Welfare Policy
3. National Rural Health Mission
4. Universalising ICDS
5. Major initiatives like Asha
6. Family Counseling Centre

1. National Population Policy – 2000
On 15th February, 2000 the Government of India announced a new population policy. The salient promotional & motivational measures in the NPP-2000 link disbursement of awards under the Rural development department’s maternity benefit schemes, antenatal check-up, delivery by trained persons, birth registration & BCG Immunization. Other initiatives includes insurance provision schemes for couples who are below the poverty line, registration of marriage & acceptance of small family norms & adoption of the terminal method after the birth of the second child.

2. Health & Family Welfare Policy
India’s health situation points unequivocally to two large population groups who are especially vulnerable to disease & death as women & children. The First Five Tear Plan initiated the establishment of sub-centres (one for every 5,ooo people) & Primary health Centres at the Block Level. In the Second Five Year Plan, MCH services became an integral part of the overall health services in rural areas. MCH was transferred to the department of Family Planning, Instead of doing the reverse.

3. National Rural Health Mission
With the launch of the Mission, initiatives have been set in motion to effectively improve access to quality health care of people, especially those residing in rural areas, the poor, women & children during the period 2005-12, the mission seeks to halve infant mortality rate from 60 to 30 per thousand live births, reduce total fertility rate from 3 to 2.1, bring down maternity mortality to 100 from over 300 per Lakh, reduce prevalence of diseases covered under the National Programme for disease control.

4. Universalising ICDS
The Government has sanctioned 2.95 Lakh Anganwadi Centres & 25,961 Mini Anganwadi Centres in two phases as parts of its commitment to ensure an Anganwadi Centres in every habitations, as per the existing population norms of one center for a population of 1,000 (700 for Tribal/Hilly/Desert Areas) during the 11th Plan period for reach out to all children below Six years of age, pregnant women & lactating mothers.

5. Major initiatives like Asha
A voluntary trained Community Health Worker in every village in 18 demographically weaker states (4.35Lakh Ashasd have been already selected & cover 2 Lakh trained), selection of over 90,000 link workers, provision of an additional ANM at all Health Sub-Centres to provide better health facilities to women, children & family.

6. Family Counselling Centre
Orissa Government has set-up 30 Family Counseling Centres (FCCs) in 30 Districts, whose main aim is to provide adequate support services & guidance to the family members, spouse when they have any family problem. It helps to aware family members about their rights and present laws to protect their Human Rights.