Tuesday, 22 April 2014

Ten Famous Social Reformers who fight against Social Evils

A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.

Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in utopian, socialist or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change.

1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was popularly known as the 'Father of Indian Renaissance ' was born on 22nd May 1772 in a Brahmin family in Bengal.He founded the Atmiya Sabha in 1815 and the Brahmo Samaj on 20th August 1828. Through these Institutions he fought against Orthodox Hindus and the fanatic Christian Missionaries.

He was against of Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Caste system and Untouchability. He was the great supporter of Inter-caste marriage, women education, Widow remarriages etc. Ram Mohan started publishing Newspapers and Magazines for which he was called the 'Father of Indian Journalism'.

2. Mahatma Gandhi
According to Gandhi " I would make the spinning-wheel, the foundation on which build a sound village life". Gandhian way of education put emphasis on the development of body, mind, heart & soul. His scheme of education he called “Nai Talim” a beautiful blend of craft, art, health & education in one & covers the whole education of the individual till death.

His education is more for girls than the boys. Gandhi ji was the first who Break the bridge between touchable & untouchable. He was the devotee of non-violence.

3. Gopabandhu Dash
Gopabandhu Dash (1877–1928) known as Utkal Mani(Gems of Odisha) was a defining social worker who excelled in the field of politics as well as literature. Gopabandhu was a legend in the Indian culture. He served his people even at the cost of his family.

During his study period, he started Kartavya Bodhini Samiti (Duty Awakening Society) to encourage his friends to do their duty as citizens and take on social, economic and political problems. He was leading a team to aid flood victims, when he heard of his son's serious illness but remained to serve the locals rather than return home to his son. he became the founder president of Congress in Odisha.

4. Swami Vivekananda 
Swami Vivekananda was another important Social Reformer who brought spiritual reawakening among the Indians in the 19th Century, popularly known as the ‘Intellectual Monk of India’ He was born in Calcutta on 12th, January, 1863. He began his life of wondering all over the country with his message of ‘Awakened India’ or ‘Prabhuda Bharat’.

He set-up ‘Ramakrishna Mission’ on 1st May, 1897. According to him, ‘Man is the maker of his own Destiny. The whole world has been made by the energy of man, by the power of faith’.

5. Swami Dayanada Saraswati
Swami Dayanada born in 1824 in a small town of Gujarat. Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of the 'Arya Samaj' was one of the maker of Modern India. His Arya Samaj gave emphasis on the liberation of the Hindu Society. He called people ‘Go back to the Veda’ created consciousness among the people.

He strongly opposed Idol worship, ritualism, practice of animal sacrifice, the idea of Heaven etc. This movement also challenged the Christian Missionaries who tried to convert the uneducated, poor and depressed classes of the Hindus.

6. Annie Besant
Annie Besant was of Irish origin and made India her second home. She fought for the rights of Indian and was the first woman president of Indian National Congress. In 1893, she left for India having been influenced by the Indian culture and civilization. She was famous as a social worker, educationalist, journalist, prominent Theosophist, social reformer, political leader, women's rights activist, writer and orator. She fought for the Human Rights of Indian women.

7. Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born on April 14, 1891 in Mhow (presently in Madhya Pradesh). Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is viewed as messiah of dalits and downtrodden in India. He was the chairman of the drafting committee in 1947. Bhimrao Ambedkar experienced caste discrimination right from the childhood.he was the first who reduce the bridge between tribal & non-tribal.

8. Medha Patkar
Medha Patkar was born in Mumbai. On 28 March 2006, Patkar started a hunger-strike to protest against the decision of the authorities to raise the height of the Narmada Dam. She ended her 20-day fast on 17 April 2006, after the Supreme Court of India refused the Narmada Bachao Andolan's appeal to stop the construction of the dam.

She was held by the police at Singur on 2 December 2006 after protesting against the acquisition of farmland. She is a great social Reformer & social Activist.

9. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade
Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was a distinguished judge, writer cum social reformer of India during the pre-independence era. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was a judge, politician, writer cum reformer of India. Politically, Ranade established the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and was also among those who played a phenomenal role in setting up the Indian National Congress party. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade was also an active reformer.

He set up the Social Conference movement, which worked against infant marriages, widows remarriage, spending heavily in marriages and other social functions. Ranade advocated for widow remarriage and female education.

10.Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was a grat poet and novelist. In his famous book "Kamala Kanter Daffer" pointed out the social evils and blind beliefs prevalent in Indian Soiety, which were pertaining to injustice to the poor and the downtrodden. He advocated remwedial measures for the eradication of all the evils.He wanrs to maintain equality between the rich and the poor. The famous song'Bande Mataram" was his creation.

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