There are three main levels of analysis to be taken
into consideration for the study of development of an
i) Biological System: The closely coordinated
Physiological interactions within the body.
ii) The Psychological System or Personality: It
involves the organized interaction of motives,
abilities, assumptions, and defenses integrated
around the self, and
iii) Sociological or Group System: It involves the
interactions of the individual in his family or
broader group contexts.
These three factors or levels of analysis are important
to gain a complete view of the individual and his
functioning. These factors play an important role in
shaping the personality of an individual and affect the
growth and development of personality.
Thus it is important to keep in mind that development
or change in a person is always a patterned change.
All the interactive component systems are involved in
shaping the pattern of these changes.
Human development is found to follow a definite
schedule not only in the domain of physical and motor
development but also in the domain of emotional,
intellectual, and social development. Thus an infant
crawls and sits up before she begins to walk; her
early generalized emotional reactions become
differentiated into love, humor, grief. The language
behaviour also progresses from random vocalization to
words which eventually become vehicles for thinking.
The process of development is regulated by the forces
of maturation and learning. Maturational processes
guide the development of our bodily structure and
pave the way for learning, but what we can learn in
any situation depends both on maturational readiness
and on what we have learned in the past. It is also
observed that each new phase of development is limited
by previous development and, in turn, influences and
remains a part of successive stages of development.
The human development has been broadly divided into
6 major stages. At each stage maturational and social
pressure impose certain specific tasks which the
individual must master if she is to maintain normal
course of development. When the various tasks are
not mastered during the appropriate developmental
period, the individual suffers from immaturities and
incompetencies which persist and handicap her
adjustment during later developmental stages.