Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Learning and its types .

Learning is that process which is the result of directed
physical and mental activity leading to new or changed
responses. The usual antecedent condition for learning
is a single trial or it may come after many hours
spent in fruitless endeavor. The length of the trial
and error period depends on the difficulty of the task,
the maturity of the learner and the skill, understanding
and experience needed for the task. The trial period
ends when the correct or right response occurs. The
right response is that which closes the deal, ends
the search or solves the problems. Reinforcement
occurs when a response is satisfying. Once the correct
sequence act has been established as a result of
reinforcement, smoothness and skills are gained
though repetition or exercise. Repetition provides a
chance to reinforce what is learned and helps in
better operation It also strengthens the selected
responses until they become well established habits.
Multiple response learning is related to human beings
and its nature is quite complex. There are three main
types of multiple response human learning i.e (i)
Sensory motor learning, (ii) Verbal learning and (iii)
Concept learning. We will briefly take up the salient
features of each.
In the field of human learning, sensory motor learning
provides assistance to mirror drawing and pursuit
learning. In this special learning, muscular actions
are significant. These muscular actions are controlled
by sense organs. Acquired human skills in different
fields are included under this type of learning, for
example, bicycling, playing on a piano, working on
machines, flying aircrafts etc.
A major part of human behaviour comes under verbal
learning. Comparatively the amount of verbal learning
is much more than sensory motor learning. For the
experimental study of verbal learning, meaningful
words have been used. There are four main techniques
of presentation of verbal material i.e. free-recall, serial
learning and recall, paired associate and verbal
discrimination procedure.
Concept learning is the most complex aspect of human
learning. It is related with such verbal reactions in
which things belonging to one category are known by
one generalised name. Concept learning is very
important for thinking. After concept formation any
stimulant or stimulant group is known by one name.
For example after concept learning we call a particular
species of fruit ‘mango’ and the other ‘ banana’. Though
each mango or each banana may differ from each
other, yet they are known by a generalised name
because of many common characteristics. Concept is a
process of differentiation between common
characteristics and relations among objects, persons
and events. From the beginning of the thinking process
in a child concept learning begins taking place in his/
her mind. It develops in the mind of the child with his/
her contacts with new things. Concept learning is
influenced by the process of perception, analysis,

comparison, abstract thinking and generalization.