Tuesday, 18 March 2014

Panic disorder

panic disorder, anxiety disorder characterized by repeated panic attacks that leads to persistent worry and avoidance behaviour in an attempt to prevent situations that could precipitate an attack. Panic attacks are characterized by the unexpected, sudden onset of intense apprehension, fear, or terror and occur without apparent cause. Panic attacks often occur in people with breathing disorders such as asthma and in people experiencing bereavement or separation anxiety. While about 10 percent of people experience a single panic attack in their lifetimes, repeated attacks constituting panic disorder are less common; the disorder occurs in about 1–3 percent of people in developed countries. (The incidence in developing countries is unclear due to a lack of diagnostic resources and patient reporting.) Panic disorder typically occurs in adults, though it can affect children. It is more common in women than men, and it tends to run in families.
The underlying cause of panic disorder appears to arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the most significant genetic variations that has been identified in association with panic disorder is mutation of a gene designated HTR2A (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A). This gene encodes a receptor protein in the brain that binds serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating mood. People who possess this genetic variant may be susceptible to irrational fears or thoughts that have the potential to induce a panic attack. Environmental and genetic factors also form the basis of the suffocation false alarm theory. This theory postulates that signals about potential suffocation arise from physiological and psychological centres involved in sensing factors associated with suffocation, such as increasing carbon dioxide and lactate levels in the brain. People affected by panic disorder appear to have an increased sensitivity to these alarm signals, which produce a heightened sense of anxiety. This increased sensitivity results in the misinterpretation of nonthreatening situations as terrifying events.
Altered activity of neurotransmitters such as serotonin can give rise to depression. Thus, there exists a close association between panic disorder and depression, and a large percentage of persons suffering from panic disorder go on to experience major depression within the next few years. In addition, about 50 percent of people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia, an abnormal fear of open or public places that are associated with anxiety-inducing situations or events. Panic disorder also may coincide with another anxiety disorder, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia.
Because persistent worry and avoidance behaviour are major characteristics of panic disorder, many patients benefit from cognitive therapy. This form of therapy typically consists of developing skills and behaviours that enable a patient to cope with and to prevent panic attacks. Exposure therapy, a type of cognitive therapy in which patients repeatedly confront their fears, becoming desensitized to their fears in the process, can be effective in panic disorder patients who are also affected by agoraphobia. Pharmacotherapy can be used to correct for chemical imbalances in the brain. For example, tricyclic antidepressants, such as imipramine and desipramine, are effective treatments for panic disorder because they increase the concentrations of neurotransmitters at nerve terminals, where the chemicals exert their actions. These agents may also provide effective relief of associated depressive symptoms. Other antidepressants, including benzodiazepines, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), also can be effective in treating both anxiety- and depression-related symptoms.