Wednesday, 6 May 2015

Gandhian approach to development

The Model of Development

• Increase wealth of nation through Planned growth in agriculture and industry--emphasis on centralized technologies
• The wealth would trickle down to masses thus alleviating poverty
• Help to village industries only a stop gap arrangement for ‘quick employment generation’ .

India’s Development Experience
ITEM                                       YEAR1950                                 YEAR 1998
Food grains                               50.8 mt                                         203.5 mt
 Sugar                                         1.134 mt                                      15.520 mt
Steel                                           1.041 mt                                      373.1 mt
Cotton                                        4215 m sqm                                 17948 m sqm
Electricity gen                            6.575 b kWhr                              448.6 b kWhr
Bicycles                                      99 k                                             10373k
GDP crores                                  1,40,477                                    10,83,047

Gandhiji’s Critique of “Industrialism” based Development
• Crossing river on the basis of average depth ! – Need for equity
• Based on Exploitation- of Man, Nature – Need for non violence , concept of ahimsa
• Unhealthy dependence & vulnerability – Need for self sufficiency in basic necessities , concept of swadeshi
• Unnecessary mechanization – Need for appropriate technology –less capital requirement , more employment , meaningful jobs
• Pampers baser instincts – Self control is a virtue , concept of swaraj

Gandhian Model of Development
• Development should be holistic { economical , intellectual, emotional & spiritual} & Nonexploitative, i.e. sustainable
• Possible only in “Self sufficient Village Republics ” : Gram-swaraj & Swadeshi
• Gandhiji: I do visualise electricity, ship building, iron works, machine making and the like existing side by side with village handicrafts. But the order of dependence will be reversed…..
• The mantra : rural industrialization -wealth generation in a distributed manner & not redistribution of wealth generated centrally – the need for S ,T & M inputs

Alternative Criteria for Technology Choice
Maximise employment
• minimise resource depletion
• Reduce vulnerability- promote self sufficiency
• reduce inequity
• promote job satisfaction
• shouldn’t pamper baser instincts – not thwart satisfaction of higher needs