Wednesday, 15 April 2015

Models of counselling

These theories help the counsellors to follow a particular
approach or model. The term ‘model’ as used here means
a structure of counselling process that shows
relationships between the components and tells what
is done in counselling and in what sequence. In other
words a model of counselling explains the interaction
between two persons and the content and sequence of
this interaction in order to make sense and help the
counsellor to be effective. There are number of models
devised and practiced to help the counselees. However,
in all these models, the expected outcome of counselling
is some change in behaviour. This change in person
occurs through the stages of exploration, understanding
and action. In view of this, J.M. Fuster (2005) has
attempted to categorise the various models of counselling
according to the emphasis they place on one or several
of these stages.
1. Emphasis on action alone: These models of
counselling give more emphasis on the clients action
without their understanding of what is being done
to them. It is intended to bring change in the person’s
behaviour through action alone. This system of
bringing change in behaviour is called behaviour
therapy. The counsellors following this model
condition the person to act in a particular way. They
may also systematically counter-condition the
behaviour of the person without his/her realizing
why they are doing this to him/her. This model may
prove useful in treating some types of mentally ill
patients with whom communication is very difficult.
2. Emphasis on exploration and understanding: These
models of counselling centre around the
counsellee’s self-exploration and selfunderstanding.
It also emphasizes persons’
understanding of the counselling process and his/
her involvement therein. Psychoanalysis, clientcentred
therapy, trait and factor counselling,
existential therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt
Therapy are some of the models of counselling and
psychotherapy which comes under this category.
3. Emphasis on exploration, understanding and
Action: This types of counselling models attempts
to give emphasis on exploration, understanding and
a systematic action programme that flows from the
understanding. Carkhuff ( 1969 and 1977) has
presented this integrated model. Exploration and
understanding help to plan action effectively. A
systematic action programme translates insight into
the desired behaviour change.